Educating for 21st-century lives

This morning, our BdB team led our first staff development workshop for staff across the University. The workshop, ‘Educating for 21st-century lives: a practical and inclusive approach’, explored the importance of embedding inclusive design in our curricula, the value of this for employability, and the role of simulation tools in developing awareness and understanding.

In the first part of the workshop, participants considered ways in which they can embed inclusive design in their curricula and activities. Thereafter, they had fun exploring the impact of different kinds of impairments on everyday activities, using the simulation equipment we have invested in. These include: bariatric and geriatric suits, simulation gloves, and glasses simulating a range of visual impairments. Participants considered different applications of inclusive design from the built environment to design for digital and printed communications and packaging. At the end of the workshop, we discussed ways in which we can collaborate on new initiatives to promote best practice in inclusive design across the University.

 


Making colour accessible

Visiting speaker Dr David Flatla and Typography undergraduate Ryzard Akita debating the cross-disciplinary challenges of inclusive design

Visiting speaker David Flatla and Typography undergraduate Ryzard Akita engaged in an exciting discussion of cross-disciplinary challenges for inclusive design

Last week, BdB looked deeper into issues around colour and accessibility with visiting speaker Dr David Flatla.

David is a Lecturer and founding director of the Digitally-Augmented Perception Research Lab (DAPRlab) at the University of Dundee. DAPRlab seeks to digitally enhance the perceptual abilities of people with both atypical and typical sensory abilities. David’s particular research interests lie in developing personalised models and new assistive technology to help people with impaired colour vision. His previous work has received Best Paper awards from CHI and ASSETS, and he received a Canadian Governor General’s Gold Medal for his PhD research.

David described his involvement with recent bottom-up (assistive tech) and top-down (designers) approaches to addressing challenges for users with different kinds of impaired colour vision (ICV – more commonly known as colourblindness). Colour vision is a vital component of everyday living and its loss can severely limit a person’s livelihood, threaten health and safety, make food preparation difficult, and even challenge someone’s social acceptability. In spite of these complications, visual designs that employ inaccessible colour choices abound, and people who experience impaired colour vision have little assistive technology to help overcome these challenges.

David’s talk was well-received by the undergraduate and postgraduate students from different programmes who attended the talk. Leo Poppa, a final year MEng Cybernetics student said “David’s presentation provided me with invaluable perspective of how people with ICV perceive and interact with objects in the world. What surprised me the most was that both people with impaired sensory capabilities as well as those with ‘typical’ abilities could be assisted by his research, something I had not taken into account. Whilst colour accessibility is easy for engineers to overlook when designing and implementing a product, I feel that this seminar provides a concise set of techniques that can be used to improve accessibility of future engineering projects. Hence, this talk is a must-see for any engineer wishing to improve their design practices.”

Typography undergraduate Ryzard Akita is designing a prototype for a food app for users with visual-impairments as part of his final year self-directed project. Ryzard said: “David’s talk on colour accessibility was very insightful. He highlighted the importance of understanding inclusive design and discussed how individuals live with ICV on a daily basis. Unfortunately, colour accessibility is something that is often overlooked in the design industry. So to counter this David encourages designers not be one minded and has suggested tools available to aid the inclusive design process. 

“This was an eye opener for me as there was so much to take into consideration. I was even fortunate enough to speak to David himself after his talk. He gave me further advice on my University project and even explained in detail how these tools can be applied to my design process. I truly believe that I benefited from this talk and I recommend it to any designer who is unaware about the importance of considering colour accessibility.”

David’s visit was hosted by BdB team member Faustina Hwang and the School of Systems Engineering. Our BdB team look forward to hosting more seminars with cross-disciplinary relevance.

Learning through simulation

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This month, our Built Environment students learnt about the importance of prioritising inclusive design through simulation. Using specialised equipment such as bariatric suits, simulation gloves and wheelchairs to simulate different conditions, students gained insight into the kinds of everyday difficulties that people with various disabilities are likely to experience when using a building. The students undertook a number of everyday tasks such as walking up and down stairs, and using a lift and toilet facilities.

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Wearing bariatric suits, students first experienced the challenges of using small spaces such as lifts and toilet facilities. Some of the lifts in the building used in the exercise were fairly small, leaving little room for personal space once two people had entered the lift. Similarly, there was little room to manoeuvre inside the gent’s toilet cubicle, making entering and leaving difficult, and sitting down extremely cramped. Students experienced how the width of the cubicle was inadequate for a person with a large build, with almost no room to move their arms when sitting.

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Using wheelchairs with large wheels that can be propelled by the user, students experienced difficulties with using lifts and other means of access. In particular, they discovered that one of the ramps up to the URS Building is very steep, which meant that it was a quick ride down, but required some expenditure of energy to get back up the slope again. They noted that the wheelchair seemed unstable going up the ramp, unless the user bent forward in the chair. Leaning back in the chair and pushing the wheels resulted in the front lifting up. The students also attempted to move across a gravel bed, which proved quite difficult. The final task for the wheelchair user was to experience using one of the disabled WCs in the URS building. This proved to be quite a challenge, as there did not appear to be any simple way of moving from the wheelchair onto the loo itself. Although there are rails that can be used to hold onto whilst moving out of the wheelchair, the rail on the left (nearest to the wheelchair user here) seemed to be more of a barrier, rather than an aid. One student almost managed the task, but only by literally lifting him up and over the rail. This was an enlightening experience into the difficulties faced by wheelchair users, and also by the designers of accessible WCs.

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The final task for students was to wear simulation gloves while performing everyday tasks, such as using a mobile phone, a laptop, or just using the handle on a door. The plastic strips on the gloves reduces the amount of strength and control that you can apply when undertaking a simple task like this, making gripping the object more difficult.

Geoff Cook and Christina Duckett led the workshop, with assistance from our new team member Nic Hollinworth (who also wrote this blog).

Designing with empathy for print and screen

This week we held two more BdB workshops for second year typography students. The workshops – led by Jeanne-Louise Moys – focused on:

  • highlighting general considerations for best practice in inclusive graphic designers
  • using various kinds of graphic differentiation to improve visual clarity and contrast for colourblind users and
  • creating awareness of the needs and preferences of users with limited dexterity.

In the dexterity sessions, students wore simulation gloves to experience how conditions like arthritis affect how users can interact with digital devices (e.g. laptops and mobile phones) and paper artefacts. Working in pairs, they recorded and shared each other’s observations and interactions on a group discussion board in Blackboard.

Typography students experimenting with the simulation gloves

Sophie and Clara discovering how dexterity affects users’ interactions with a laptop

 

Laptop interactions: Students noted how the gloves made them aware of how difficult, slow and uncomfortable it was to type on their laptop given that they could not bend their fingers as much as they usually do. They also highlighted that it was extremely difficult to scroll and use the trackpad on their laptops for navigation and doing Mac-based interactions like zooming in and out. Most of them said that clicking was ‘okay’ but noted that it could be difficult to select the right thing on screen and know for sure if they had activated it.

 

Typography students experimenting with the simulation gloves

Ed, Sam and Connor experimenting with the simulation gloves

 

 

Mobile interactions: With their mobile phones, the students experimented with things they do every day from typing to games. They were particularly surprised at how difficult it was to pick up and grip the phone. Instead of using their thumbs for many actions, they had to use their index fingers. They also found it hard to swipe and had to rely on tap gestures to interact with apps. Some buttons became inaccessible. For example, they noted that they had to use a different button in order to be able to take a selfie and that it was difficult to access the phone’s on/off button.

 

Typography students experimenting with the simulation gloves

Typography students Elliot and Claudia exploring paper stocks and finishes

 

Paper interactions: Students explored how using different paper sizes, stocks, print finishes and binding methods can make it easier or more difficult for users with limited dexterity to read booklets, leaflets, magazines and newspapers. Based on their experiential learning, students identified that:

  • Smaller artefacts are easier for users to grip
  • Heavier paper stocks make it easier for users to turn pages
  • Resting an object on a table makes it easier for users to turn pages (although this factor needs to be considered in combination with reading distances)
  • Grainy and matt paper stocks are easier to turn and handle than glossy stocks or print finishes.

These two workshops embedded inclusive design into yet another BA Graphic Communication module – Integrated Design Methods 2B (TY2INTB). Building on the workshops we held in Design Thinking (TY2DT) last term, our second year typography students have been introduced to a range of inclusive design considerations. They are now working on applying their knowledge to their design of mobile apps for tablet and mobile phone devices in their practical module Integrated Design Methods 2A (TY2INTA). One student, Alice Watkins, has decided to design her recipe app especially for users with visual impairments.

From a T&L perspective, using simulation gloves to interact with everyday objects provided students with a fun opportunity for task-based learning. Jeanne-Louise reported that it was particularly rewarding to observe how much the students learnt through their own discovery and how this enabled them to reflect on their design practice.

A message from Julie Fleck

I am thrilled to see how the Breaking down Barriers Project is taking off – well done Christina, Jeanne-Louise and the rest of the BdB team.

The University of Reading is leading the way in its approach to embedding inclusive design into the built environment teaching and learning programmes and is a real support for the Government’s Built Environment Professional Education project (BEPE).

BEPE aims to embed inclusive design teaching and learning into all built environment programmes so that every newly qualified built environment professional has the skills, knowledge, understanding and attitude to deliver accessible and inclusive buildings, places and spaces in their future professional lives. The work at Reading can really help to make inclusive design business as usual.

I would like to remind all built environment students that Inclusive Design wins prizes! The RSA (Royal Society of Arts) Student Design Awards includes a brief called Inclusive Cities this year (see the RSA SDA Inclusive Cities brief). The competition opened for submissions on 27th January and closes on 10th March. Built environment undergraduate and postgraduate students can submit a design, project, plan or strategy that demonstrates an understanding of inclusive design principles and processes – do please enter.

I am looking forward to the attending the School of Architecture event next week to participate and discuss ideas for a shared curriculum – education, practice and industry – and to discuss how the new architecture programme starting this autumn is embedding inclusive design.

 

Julie Fleck

BEPE Project Lead

Office for Disability Issues

Jan 2016

 

Adrian Tagg becomes our second BdB adopter  

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Adrian Tagg, a lecturer in SCME and an experienced practising Building Surveyor is our latest BdB adopter. Adrian recently introduced Access Audits into the core second year Building Surveying module which he now leads, using case studies from continental Europe.  This session followed presentations to Building Surveying students from Geoff Cook and Christina Duckett on inclusive design basics, and workshops similar to those previously undertaken by Typography students, allowing students to appreciate the impact of visual impairment on everyday tasks by simulation exercises.  Students on SCME’s optional third year Inclusive Environments module also participated in the sessions: this module is open to students of all disciplines within SCME.

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Adrian’s engagement with BdB means that Inclusive design is now embedded into a core module within an undergraduate programme in SCME run by a member of staff who is not part of the core BdB team, which is great news. We’re keen for other Reading colleagues to join us as adopters. If you’re interested in finding out more about becoming a BdB adopter, please contact Christina Duckett (c.duckett@reading.ac.uk).

Welcoming our new team members

Our BdB project team has expanded and now encompasses representatives from the School of Systems Engineering at the University. We’re pleased to welcome Faustina Hwang and Nic Hollinworth to our team.

Faustina Hwang

Faustina Hwang

Faustina’s research interests are in human-computer interaction, particularly the design of technology for older adults and people with disabilities.  She has been working in this area for 15 years, following her PhD on cursor control for people with motor impairment.  Since then, she has been working with older adults on technology to address malnutrition, people with aphasia on computer applications to support language therapy, and people with learning disabilities on multisensory approaches to museum engagement.  She collaborates with colleagues from a range of disciplines including art, built environment, clinical language sciences, human nutrition, psychology, and typography. She is an Associate Editor for the ACM (Association for Computing Machinery) Transactions on Accessible Computing. You can read more about her projects here.

Nic Hollinworth

Nic Hollinworth

Nic Hollinworth is a researcher who works on the Interactive Sensory Objects project. He also conducts research into improving computer interaction for older adults, and making accessible electronics. He is a computer scientist, engineer and designer with an interest in creating novel interaction experiences and making objects active through the use of embedded microcontrollers.

 

Digital inclusivity

Our BdB team are busy planning our next inclusive design workshop collaboration between SACD and SCME. The focus for our next workshop is digital inclusivity. Typography students will be engaging with user experience of digital platforms in relation to issues like manual dexterity and colour blindness. Christina Duckett and Jeanne-Louise Moys will co-facilitate the workshop, which feeds directly into an assessed project for which typography students are designing recipe apps.