Reference simulations and forcings

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This page provides you with the information on where to find the model forcings that are needed to specify the IGAC/SPARC CCMI community reference and sensitivity simulations in support of the upcoming ozone and climate assessments.

Information on main forcings

The majority of the forcings for the CCMI-1 reference and sensitivity simulations can be downloaded via the links provided in the CCMI Simulation Document:


Eyring, V., J.-F. Lamarque et al., Overview of IGAC/SPARC Chemistry-Climate Model Initiative (CCMI) Community Simulations in Support of Upcoming Ozone and Climate Assessments, SPARC Newsletter No. 40, p. 48-66, 2013

Information on additional forcings

  • Surface mixing ratios of Ozone Depleting Substances

    CFC-11, CFC-12, CFC-113, CFC-114, CFC-115, CCl4, CH3CCl3, HCFC-22, HCFC-141b, HCFC-142b, Halon1211, Halon1202, Halon1301, Halon2402, CH3Cl, and CH3Br (Table 5-A3 of WMO [2011]).

>> ODS forcing 1950-2100 contact/information: Guus Velders Latest Update 08/05/13
>> ODS forcing 1850-2100* contact/information: Doug Kinnison Latest Update 12/04/13

*Note that data after 1951 are the same as in the file above except for CH3Cl from 1951-1954.

  • Quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO)
>> QBO forcing contact/information: Markus Kunze Latest Update 08/06/13

  • Surface Area Densities (SADs), stratospheric heating rates, aerosol albedo and tropospheric-surface cooling due to volcanic eruptions
>> SAD forcing contact/information: Thomas Peter, Beiping Luo Latest Update 02/18/13

  • Update on the anthropogenic and biomass burning emissions (MACCity)
>> MACCity 1960-2008 contact/information: Claire Granier Latest Update 03/08/13

Information on observations for model evaluation*

*required before the start of the simulations (in particular for REF-C3)

  • Aircraft in-situ observations

    A collection of flight paths and corresponding observational data from various selected aircraft campaigns were compiled by the CCMI working group on aircraft in-situ observations.

>> Aircraft flight paths contact/information: Thomas Ryerson Latest Update 03/08/13