Chancellor’s Award winners in the Department of Classics

In the latest round of Chancellor’s Awards, two of our students were winners: Aidan Richardson (Part 2, Ancient History) and Stephen Cervini-Attfield (Part 3, Ancient History).  The Awards are made on the basis of the previous year’s grades, and recognise exceptional academic performance.  A University-wide awards ceremony was held at the start of term, and yesterday Aidan and Stephen came into the Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology to be photographed with their prize certificates against a suitable Classical backdrop.  Congratulations to them both!

Aidan and Stephen in the Ure

This term’s Research Seminars in the Department of Classics

Department of Classics research seminars, spring term 2019

Unless otherwise stated, all seminars are at 4 pm on Wednesday afternoon, in Edith Morley G25.  There are light refreshments afterwards in Edith Morley G40.  Everyone welcome.

23rd Jan.          Paul Christesen (Dartmouth College): “Spartans Living the Good Life? Luxury, Leisure, and Austerity in Ancient Sparta.”
30th Jan.          Sara Monoson (Northwestern): “Grieving Soldiers and Displaced Persons: Another Look at the Exile of Poetry in Plato’s Republic.” (This seminar begins at 5 pm.)
6th Feb.           Reading Classical Association lecture. Katherine Southwood (St. John’s College, Oxford): “Illness and the Quest for Meaning: Moralising Explanations of Bodily Dysfunction in Job and the Psalms.” (This event begins at 5 pm.)
13th Feb.         Mai Musie (Oxford): “Persian Eunuchs in the Greek Novel?”
(No seminar in week 6 of term.)
27th Feb.         Erica Rowan (Royal Holloway): “Tough To Get It Right: An Exploration of Roman Food Culture.”

6th Mar.          Naomi Carless Unwin (Warwick): “The Spectacle of Procession: Epigraphic Insights into Festival Culture in the Graeco-Roman East.”
13th Mar.        Richard Parkinson (Oxford): “Moments of Identification: LGBTQ+ History and Heritage?”  (This seminar begins at 3:30 pm.)
20th Mar.        Juliane Zachhuber (Reading): “The Lindians and Their Athena-sanctuary: Defining Changing Local Religious Identities in Space and Epigraphy.”


Enquiries should be directed to the Head of Department, Dr Emma Aston:

Reading Ancient Schoolroom seeking Associate Director

The Reading Ancient Schoolroom, which offers historically accurate re-creations of ancient schools for modern children, is seeking an Associate Director. This is a paid position, though not paid very much. For more information, see

Inquiries can be sent to the Director, Professor Eleanor Dickey, at

Classics contribution to UK Vote 100

Reading Classics’ Professor Barbara Goff has written a guest post on the website of UK Vote 100, which celebrates the centenary of women gaining the vote in the UK.  In her post, Professor Goff, an expert in the reception of ancient Greek political thought, examines the use of Classical imagery and themes in the campaign for women’s suffrage.  You can access her post here.

The post relates to an exhibition on Classics and the suffrage movement, located near the Ure Museum of Greek Archaeology in the Edith Morley Building, University of Reading – access free and all welcome.  As she points out in her post, this is a very suitable place to hold an exhibition on this theme: Edith Morley, after whom the building was recently renamed, was both a suffragette and the first female University Professor (appointed 1908); and the Ure Museum has had a number of significant female Curators, up to and including the present incumbent, Professor Amy Smith.  Ure Museum website.

Re-imagining Mithraism

(By Dr. Claudina Romero)

No one would have thought that the construction works carried out in Mérida (Spain) to build a bullfighting arena in 1903-1913 would be critical to rebuild the religious life of the Colonia Iulia Augusta Emerita. The fortuitous discoveryof a group of marbles surprised many scholars, since the iconography and inscriptions of the monuments verified the presence of Mithras’ followers in the Lusitanian capital.

The Mysteries of Mithras were conceived as a set of beliefs of Indo-Persian origin that spread throughout the Roman Empire for more than 300 years. The cult was favoured by men: Roman soldiers and public servants, but also by senators, freedmen and slaves. According to sources, the mithraic hierarchy consisted of 7 grades, each one guarded by a planetary divinity: Corax (Mercury); Nymphus (Venus); Miles (Mars); Leo (Jupiter); Perses (Luna); Heliodromos (Sol) and Pater (Saturn).

The monuments with inscriptions were immediately published (an altar and statues of Mercury, Dadophor and Oceanus) as well as those that presented a clear association with the cult (lion-headed god and Aion). However, there were many sculptures poorly preserved that were discarded from the catalogue since they did not show inscriptions nor a clear iconographic link to Mithras. Such was the case of two male figures (one partially naked and the other naked with a lion by his feet), a Venus, a draped female figure and an eagle.

When I started my thesis on the Iconography of Mithras in Hispania, these sculptures captured my attention, since I noticed that they were all more or less of the same size, marble type and style. After a careful analysis of all the materials exhumed and having visited and studied other temples in the Empire, I proposed a possible reconstruction of the mithraeum in Merida, reinterpreting those marbles as the planetary divinities that protected each grade in the mithraic ladder. Fortunately, my ideas have been very well received by the museum that preserves the monuments (Museo Nacional de Arte Romano): they have decided to re-arrange the display of the statues and recreated the temple as I imagined. A woman in charge of the mithraeum…Who would have thought it?


Classics and Central Asia at Fudan University in China

(By Dr. Rachel Mairs)

I recently returned from a month-long fellowship at Fudan University, in Shanghai, where I had the chance to co-teach a course on the archaeology of Central Asia with my colleague Professor Wu Xin (  My stay was generously sponsored by the Fudan Fellow Program at the Fudan Institute for Advanced Study, and the Department of History, whose chair, Professor Yang Huang, is an historian of ancient Greece.

Shanghai is an ultramodern and rapidly-developing city, but the Fudan campus is an oasis of greenery and calm, north of the city centre.  The University was founded in 1905, and is very prestigious.  The Department of History has specialists in a wide range of fields – including, as one might expect, ancient and modern China, but also the Greek and Roman worlds.  The Department is located in the twin high-rise Guanghua Towers, whose modern design is complemented by a portico flanked with Corinthian columns at the base.

My friend and host, Wu Xin, specialises in Achaemenid Central Asia and has an archaeological field project in Uzbekistan.  There are few centres of research and teaching on Central Asia worldwide, so being able to co-teach with her on a course devoted to the history and archaeology of Central Asia was a rare pleasure.  Our students were a mix of undergraduates and postgraduates, some new to both Central Asia and the ancient world, others with professional museum experience or existing expertise in ancient languages.

Drs Rachel Mairs (third from right) and Wu Xin (fourth from right)
with some of their students.

As well as teaching classes, I had the opportunity to give a lecture to colleagues and students in the Department of History on one of the most fascinating archaeological sites in the Hellenistic world, Ai Khanoum in Afghanistan.  The advertising poster (below) helpfully points out that I will be speaking in English, although in practice, in both the lecture and in class, Wu Xin and other colleagues helped out with some simultaneous translation.

Shanghai was an excellent place to reflect on some of my main scholarly interests: long-distance cultural connections in the ancient world, and how modern colonialism and empires have shaped our understanding of ancient societies.  On a visit to the Shanghai History Museum I came across a fascinating bilingual Latin-Chinese banner, which belonged to St. John’s University, a now-defunct institution founded by American Christian missionaries.  I’m very grateful to my hosts at Fudan for their warm welcome, and for giving me the opportunity to teach and research on topics so close to my heart, in a location with such historical resonance.

TRACamp, A Roman Experimental Archaeology Workshop. An account by Reading doctoral researcher Lee Graña

Figure 1: A replicated Vindolanda tablet given to the delegates to commemorate the event, with Hadrian’s Wall in the background


Experiments have always been an integral part of scientific investigation, nevertheless, the more complex nature of heritage studies such as archaeology and ancient history -often interdisciplinary by nature- has prevented the development of clear and reliable methodologies for including experiments in broader research objectives. Apprehension towards their inclusion seems to increase among periods with richer sources of literary and archaeological evidence, and they are indeed far more numerous in prehistoric studies. However, whether this is due to necessity is a question that has not been answered. Are experiments reliable when investigating sparse and fragmented cultural data? Can they help us interpret obscure archaeological and literary records? Or indeed, are they necessary -as in other sciences- to test hypotheses? The answers to these and many more questions have long been debated, primarily in prehistoric circles, but seldom among Romanists. Besides the support of the ARMES (Association for Roman Military Equipment Studies) and their 2000 publication on the themes of reconstruction in Roman military studies, or the ongoing support by the broader community of EXARC (Experimental Archaeology Conference), there have been no comprehensive publications or collaborative efforts in Roman experimental archaeology. Significant experimental sites, such as Butser Ancient Farm, Avalon Marshes, the Getty Villa, the Vindolanda Trust, Wroxeter Roman City, Lunt Roman Fort and the Saalburg Museum, are important sites that any aspiring experimental Romanist should research; nevertheless, independent and even academic research has been unsustainably reliant on these sites to promote and often fund further experiments. Indeed, it is not their flagship status that should be altered, rather the methods by which researchers can access more extensive academic and public support. As such 2018 saw the revival of a debate which has remained dormant in all but the vigorous yet independent Romanist projects doted around the world.

 In the past five years TRAC (The Theoretical Roman Archaeology Conference) has promoted the organisation of interim workshops to tackle and expand on the diverse and interdisciplinary subjects behind current research into Roman history. After a successful proposal, it was agreed that a conference on Roman experiments was required. My own experience with experimental archaeology started as an undergraduate at the University of Reading in 2006 and was further developed among several Prehistoric and Roman groups in Oxfordshire and Berkshire.  The inclusion of experiments in my PhD research was not initially intentional, rather consequential for a subject where ethnographic resources have been essential to elucidate on the fragmentary archaeological and literary record (ancient fisheries). It was in the search for data to support the ethnographic hypotheses that the difficulties in producing or locating experiments became apparent. Discussions with several peers at RAC and TRAC conferences highlighted these shared issues and it was soon clear that we were lacking a more cohesive experimental Romanist community. The TRAC workshop was therefore intended to be a stepping stone for developing such a network.

The workshop was held at Vindolanda, in proximity to Hadrian’s Wall (Northumberland). With the support of the Vindolanda Trust we were given access to a unique facility where archaeological remains have been found, preserved, housed and replicated since 1970. Among the permanent experimental fixtures were the reconstructed Roman temple, fort tower and a Roman kiln. Over the next two days additional Roman replicas were discussed, demonstrated and tested for the mutual benefit of researchers and the public.


Figure 2: West view of the latest phase of military forts at Vindolanda, with the most recent excavations at the Northern end


On Saturday the 22nd the paper presentations were held, discussing a broad range of experiments, all of which aimed to elucidate on enigmatic archaeological remains and to test theories and current interpretations. These included:

Recreating Roman late antique musical instruments (Ellen Swift and Jo Stoner, The University of Kent).

An academic versus a craftsperson in the creations of glass bangles (Tatiana Ivleva, Newcastle and Leiden Universities).

The simplification of process in Roman pottery production (Graham Taylor, Independent Researcher).

3D investigation of ox crania used for target practice at Vindolanda (Rhys Williams, Teesside University).

Analysing Roman marine fishponds with modern digital technology (Roberta Ferritto, The University of Reading).

Using 3D reconstructions to analyse the use of natural light in Roman houses (Lucia Michielin, The University of Edinburgh).

Rethinking the production of fish sauces used at the Roman table (Sally Grainger, Independent Researcher).

The essential role of experiments for understanding ancient fishing techniques (Lee Graña, The University of Reading).

The diverse role of experiments in reconstructing Roman dyeing (Heather Hopkins, Independent Researcher).

Experiments testing the life of oil lamps (Caitlin Lobl, University College Dublin).

The discussions that followed each paper, and which concluded the first day’s talks, highlighted several difficulties common among many contributing delegates. First, the shared financial constraints affecting all heritage sectors -more so over the last ten years- is palpable for an underdeveloped Romanist subdiscipline that has not yet acquired the collective support available to other periods. Second, the ever-present taboo attributed to some re-enactors and Roman enthusiasts continues to deter academic support for experiments, not only in furthering research and publication, but in the inclusion of skilled tradesmen and their established expertise. To that end, several of those attending the workshop voiced their desire to contribute, but hesitation in doing so due to a lack of qualifications or due to uncertainty in reaching the desired audience. To this end, we should give credit to all those in academia who have supported and facilitated the inclusion of experiments in classical and archaeological studies, as well as the flag-ship experimental sites mentioned above.


Figure 3: Classics’ doctoral researcher Roberta Ferritto, discussing the use of digital reconstructions for interpreting Roman fishponds


Following the presentations, we were shown around the museum and then the latest excavations by Andrew Birley of the Vindolanda Trust. Called ‘the Pompeii of Britain’’ by many, Vindolanda is indeed a unique and wealthy site. With only an estimated 25% of the area excavated, much of which continues to cover earlier layers of Roman archaeology, the volume of artefacts emerging from the clay-sealed and wonderfully preserved layers are staggering. There are 25 weeks of annual excavations and the 2018 season had ended the day before the conference; we were therefore treated to a tour of the latest discoveries and future expectations.

The second day was dedicated to demonstrations and hands-on experiments and was open to the public, which allowed delegates the opportunity to receive feedback on their work and collect valuable data on how these experiments could be conducted or experienced. The demonstrations included:

Reconstructions of Roman recipes (Mark Hatch and Jill Hatch, Roman Military Research Society).

Sampling fish sauces at the Roman table (Sally Grainger, Independent Researcher).

Video replicas and hands-on experience with the ox crania used for target practice (Rhys Williams, Teesside University).

Testing the function and gender-application of glass bangles (Tatiana Ivleva, Newcastle and Leiden Universities).

Clothing of the Late Roman period (Faith Pennick Morgan, Independent Researcher).

Roman hairstyling in the 1st century AD, replica wigs and interactive demonstrations (Michael F. Gasparro, Independent Researcher)

Pottery firing at the Vindolanda Roman kiln (Graham Taylor, Independent Researcher).

Using recreated Roman and Late Antique musical instruments (Ellen Swift and Jo Stoner, The University of Kent).

The various materials used in the production of Roman nets and first-hand experience using replicated Romano-British equipment (Lee Graña, The University of Reading).


Figure 4: Faith Pennick Morgan and the collection of replicated Roman clothing


It is often the case that in academic circles only the empirical results of experiments are shared, yet, viewing and even attempting these processes are a significant aspect in understanding the capabilities of the Romans and the potential of the objects in question, not to mention adopting the methods of approaching and tackling common obstacles. One aspect of the second day of the workshop was to promote this interaction between delegates, but also to allow the researchers to explain the processes in more detail. This is something that has proven invaluable in Prehistoric experimental groups and that is difficult to express in publications or presentations alone.


Figure 5: Graham Taylor’s firing on-site. We were also treated to some pottery production. The results of the firing were successful and are available on Graham’s twitter account or website


I was fortunate to have several people partake on my experiments by practicing net-production. One individual recalled mending nets as a child and could share knowledge that has since diminished in the local community. This highlights the other significant aspect of experimental archaeology, that is, reaching the public and obtaining feedback from otherwise unspoken yet experienced individuals. For my research, such interactions between ethnographic and experimental evidence are rare and extremely valuable.


Figure 6: A volunteer using a replicated Roman netting-needle for the production of a cast net


Figure 7: Sally Grainger produces a variety of recipes containing different fish sauces


Figure 8: A combination of experiments using instruments, glass bangles and clothing, provided a unique experience in front of the Vindolanda backdrop


The TRACamp workshop followed a smaller experimental archaeology workshop held at RAC/TRAC Edinburgh (April 2018). In addition to the academic audiences of the Edinburgh conference, the Vindolanda workshop was well received by further academics, archaeologists, aspiring Romanists and the public. People have voiced their desire to see these workshops continue and have begun to consider taking part. This growing community was the primary goal of the workshops and one that must be nurtured. Therefore, though the events were successful, they must be supported with further projects. To this end, a publication has been planned for many of the papers presented at both conferences, alongside additional contributions. Current papers cover diverse experiments being conducted across Europe and will be the first comprehensive Roman experimental archaeology publication in over three decades. A second experimental workshop is also being planned, with a preliminary date of 2020 (any interested parties should contact me for further details).

Experiments should be considered a significant contribution to heritage studies and, as demonstrated by those who have contributed to the workshops, they can aid Romanists in testing hypotheses and interpreting both literary and archaeological remains. This important resource would greatly benefit from a strong and more accessible community of researchers, and I believe this is something we should all be working towards.

Classics and Global Humanities: launching the Classical Association of Ghana

(Professor Barbara Goff writes.)

Nigeria and Ghana have long and distinguished classical traditions.  Although Latin and Greek were taught to West Africans as part of colonialism, the ancient languages, literatures and histories paradoxically become prized cultural resources which could be wielded very effectively to promote the value of African traditions, African intellectual attainment, and African independence.  Nineteenth century nationalists argued passionately for the importance of ancient Greece and Rome to the education of Africans.  When the first universities were opened in Nigeria and Ghana, in 1948, departments of Classics were among the first to offer Honours degrees.   There is now only one department of Classics in Nigeria, in Ibadan, and two in Ghana, in Legon (just outside Accra) and in Cape Coast.  These latter are both joint departments of Philosophy and Classics.  They all operate under considerable financial constraint, and they have to defend themselves, perhaps even more than classicists have to do in the UK, against people in their societies who find them irrelevant.  Since the African continent in general suffers from underdevelopment, the departments do not have extensive libraries or other resources like our wonderful Ure Museum.  Sometimes they do not have dependable electricity.

In the face of such challenges, the departments in Nigeria and Ghana have established themselves as centres of research and teaching in the classics.  Ibadan in particular has made a specialty of teaching and research about Africa in the ancient world.  Ibadan also regularly puts on African-authored plays which draw on Greek tragedies, like those by Ola Rotimi (‘The Gods Are Not to Blame’) and Femi Osofisan (‘Tegonni, an African Antigone’; ‘The Women of Owu’).  The departments often teach large ‘service’ courses like ‘Latin for Lawyers,’ so they reach big audiences, and have cultivated good relationships with alumni who have gone on to become prominent people in government, law, business, finance and the media.

2018 sees the 70th anniversary of the founding of the universities of Ibadan and Legon, and as part of the celebrations, the department at Legon decided to inaugurate a new Classical Association of Ghana, with the country’s first international conference on Classics.  Prof. Kunbi Olasope, who teaches at Ibadan and who has been a Visiting Scholar at Reading, is currently working at Legon, and she kindly invited me to give the keynote at the conference.  I was delighted to accept.  I helped develop the theme for the conference, Classics and Global Humanities, because I think classics has become an even more global discipline in recent years, especially with the emphasis on classical reception, and the very existence of this conference seemed to underline the point.

Prof. Barbara Goff with Prof. Kunbi Olasope


Among other visiting speakers, and scholars and officers of the University


The conference turned out to be properly international, with participants from the UK, the States, Germany, and South Africa, as well as Ghana and Nigeria.  Sessions were held in the beautiful Great Hall, decked out in the gold and blue colours of the university, and the student helpers were dressed in special T-shirts with the logo of the new Association.  The first day included speeches from various university dignitaries, as well as an alumnus who is a prominent TV news presenter.  He pulled no punches in his account of why newer nations, like those of Africa, need to learn from the old.  Lunches were served out of doors, under awnings, where we could eat goat stew, okra, yams, tilapia and jolof rice, as well as sandwiches and salads.  Watermelon or pineapple juice was very welcome, especially when we all had to stand around in the tropical sun for the dozens of obligatory photos.

View of the campus from the Balme Library


A tour of the campus on one day took us past the Balme Library, named after the distinguished British classicist who was the first VC of the university at Legon.  The campus architecture is unassuming but elegant, with long low white buildings with red roofs, statues, ornamental pools, and a Botanical Garden.  What I had not expected to see on campus was a huge number of huge termite mounds.  Stay away from these, as they bite – even the well-educated ones.  On another day we drove to Cape Coast, where there is the other department of Classics and Philosophy, and also the somewhat misnamed Elmina Castle. This was built as a fort to protect European traders, first Portuguese and then Dutch, but had a far more dreadful history as a holding point for captured Africans before the Atlantic crossing. 

As always with conferences, the conversations were most important, where we exchanged thoughts about teaching, academic life in the different locations, the value of what we do, and what we should do next.  There is no sense, in Legon or Ibadan, that the classics are an alien heritage that should be rejected; classics is not a reminder of the toxic legacies of slavery and empire.  Instead it is a way to provoke and sustain debates about issues that exercised people in antiquity and that remain significant.  The discipline was ‘global’, though perhaps not very humane, when European colonisers took Latin and Greek to West Africa; now it links scholars internationally in new and fruitful ways.


The Department of Classics honours Black History Month with an exhibition on the Classics in Nigeria and Ghana.  Please visit our corridor on the ground floor of Edith Morley.

Homan tablet and stylus: newest acquisitions in the Ure Museum

On 17th October 2018 the Ure Museum Curators welcomed friends and supporters, Classics Department staff and students, and other university staff including Vice Chancellor Prof. Robert Van de Noort and Prof. Roberta Gilchrist, Dean of Heritage and Creativity, to the launch of its latest acquisitions, the Homan tablet and stylus. The acquisitions, purchased gratefully with a bequest from Martin and Rosemary Hughes—who attended the launch—to remember Martin’s mother, Marjorie Homan, and thus thank her—along with his father—for encouraging Martin’s study of the Classics, through to degree level at Oxford University. After a few words of welcome and thanks to the donors, from the Ure Museum’s Curator, Prof. Amy C. Smith, Prof. Eleanor Dickey spoke about the acquisition and its usefulness in teaching and research, and warmly thanked Dr. Daniela Colomo, Curator of the Oxyrhynchus Papyrus Collection at Oxford University, who had just delivered an excellent lecture in the departmental seminar. Emeritus Prof. Jane Gardner followed up with words of thanks also to Prof. Dickey and a mention of the potential usefulness of this acquisition visavis the Reading Ancient Schoolroom (next occuring in January 2019), reminding the audience of Reading Classics’ unique record of engaging students directly in cutting-edge academic research and the public dissemination of antiquity. Finally Martin Hughes, the benefactor, spoke of his gratitude to the Department for their generous welcome throughout the years, while he has been attending departmental seminars, and of his pleasure in sharing this acquisition with the students and visitors to the Ure Museum.


Prof. Eleanor Dickey describing the teaching value of the tablet and stylus for the Classics Department


Emeritus Prof. Jane Gardner speaking of Reading Classics’ tradition of innovative teaching and research


The artefacts are now displayed just to the right of the entrance to the Ure Museum. The writing tablet, made of wood, has some wax in the corner that indicates it was once used as a writing tablet on which a stylus, such as the bronze one with which it is displayed, would have been used, with the pointed end to incise writing in the wax surface. The flat end of the stylus would have been used to flatten the wax, thereby erasing the writing. At some point in later antiquity the tablet was covered with white upon which a more permanent message was written with ink in cursive ancient Greek. The message and further details will not be revealed until our first year students have had a chance to grapple with it and our MA students have had an opportunity to research and write permanent labels for the artefacts.

The new acquisitions (in case on the right) are greeted by (from left to right) Acting Vice Chancellor Prof. Robert Van der Noort, Ure Museum Curator Prof. Amy Smith, Research Dean (Heritage and Creativity) Prof. Roberta Gilchrist, the donor Mr. Martin Hughes, Head of Classics Dr Emma Aston, and Mrs. Rosemary Hughes the donor’s wife


Students in the Reading Classics Department inspect the tablet and stylus




Reflections on teaching in Brazil

As autumn draws on, I look back on the warm and sunny winter days I spent in Belo Horizonte, the chief city of the Brazilian state of Minas Gerais, in August 2018. I was visiting the Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG) to deliver a mini-module on animals in antiquity, co-taught with an old friend there, Dr Rafael Scopacasa. The module recruited a good-sized group of both undergraduate and postgraduate students, from a wide range of academic backgrounds: UFMG has no Classics Department, instead including the study of antiquity within the Faculdade de Filosofia e Ciencias Humanas, and our class discussions certainly benefited from the variety of perspectives this brought. Debate was lively – requiring rapid translation between English and Portuguese at times! – as we tackled topics including farming, chariot-racing, domestic pets and animal metamorphosis in Greek and Roman mythology. Particularly fascinating were the local Minas folktales which the students were able to bring in as comparanda for their Classical counterparts. Most cultures seem to have their own myths of magical animal transformation, and it was a unique opportunity to explore some of these.

The author with students on the closing day of the module.
Organiser Rafael Scopacasa at left. (Photo: Emma Aston)


Praça de Serviços, UFMG: the main eating and facilities area for students and staff.  (Photo: Emma Aston)


Belo Horizonte Municipal Library. (Photo: Emma Aston)

While in UFMG I was also given the opportunity to deliver a paper to the Faculty on a current research interest, the use of horses in ancient Greek warfare and racing. The warm reception I was given was typical of my treatment in the University, where people went out of their way to show hospitality and to integrate me into the academic life of the community. I attended part of a conference, the Fifth Congresso Brasileiro de Retórica, organised by Maria Cecília de Miranda Nogueira Coelho, one day of which was held not in Belo Horizonte but in the nearby town of Ouro Preto. This, and a trip to Sabará under the expert guidance of Prof. Eduardo França Paiva, highlighted the enormous importance of mining in the history of Minas Gerais – even the name evokes the process which, historically, gave the region its great wealth and importance. The landscape is marked by centuries of industrial extraction; the towns owe their lovely 18th and 19th century churches and houses to the proceeds of the mines. This is a very different Brazil from Rio at carnival time, probably the image of Brazil that would come most readily to the outsider mind, or even from Saô Paulo, where I also spent a few days. Seldom have I encountered such a strong, and strongly cherished, sense of regional identity – of great interest to one who works on regional identity in ancient Greece.


Church of Nossa Senhora do Carmo, Ouro Preto, designed by Aleijandinho, famous 18th-19th c. architect and sculptor. (Photo: Emma Aston)