This morning the latest inflation numbers have been released: -0.1%. That is, deflation. The Consumer Price Index, what the Bank of England uses to measure inflation, has barely changed since February – see above. To give some context, the Bank of England’s inflation forecasts since February have all suggested inflation would have risen back up to around 0.5% by now, yet persistently inflation is around zero.
Why does this matter? It matters on a number of levels; to mention a few:
- Inflation is seen as a barometer of how well the economy is doing. Strong demand across the economy, given a fairly fixed supply, would yield inflation, and hence this suggests the economy is far from capacity (where supply would be fairly fixed).
- Inflation is what the Bank of England must set its monetary policy to influence. The target is 2% with a 1% band either side, and hence inflation is below target. In this situation, the Bank might be expected to try and generate a bit of inflation to push back towards its target, yet interest rates, the tool the Bank uses, are already at their (effective) lower bound of 0.5%. It certainly doesn’t suggest the Bank is about to raise interest rates, another fear some have.
- Inflation is the norm. Deflation has not been; I noted the one historical deflationary UK episode a few weeks ago. Japan has found itself fixed in zero/negative inflation territory for a long time now – it’s not the norm, and at least as far as Japan, and possibly increasingly the UK, are finding, it’s unexpectedly persistent too.
We’ll spend time looking at inflation next term…