Category Archives: Stratosphere

The North Atlantic Oscillation and the Signal to Noise Paradox

By: Daniel Hodson  The North Atlantic Oscillation (NAO) is a key driver of European weather. It is an Atlantic pressure dipole (Figure 1a) and varies over time, with some interesting long-term trends (Figure 1b). The NAO directly affects EU climate … Continue reading

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Storylines of regional climate change

By Giuseppe Zappa  An outstanding question for climate science is quantifying how global warming will regionally affect the aspects of climate that are most directly relevant to society, such as precipitation, windiness and extremes. But achieving this task is proving … Continue reading

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Is the Montreal Protocol really working?

By Michaela Hegglin The Montreal Protocol, which celebrated its 30th birthday last year, is an international treaty established in 1987 to protect the ozone layer from human-made ozone depleting substances. The Montreal Protocol has been hailed as the most effective … Continue reading

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