10 types of scientist

Original blog from Science Council, who provide the quality assurance system for those working in science. 


Not all scientists wear white coats and work in labs. There are a wide variety of jobs and careers that require knowledge and application of science, from research to business and from regulation to teaching.

The Science Council has identified 10 types of scientist working today. Which type of scientist are you? Take our quiz to find out.

Click here to find out about becoming a registered professional scientist

Business scientist

Business scientists discussing charts and plans in an office

The Business Scientist underpins excellent management and business skills with scientific knowledge, supporting evidence-led decision-making within companies and other enterprises.

This type of scientist has the scientific and technical knowledge to be credible with both colleagues and competitors, as well as confidence in a business environment. They are found in science and technology companies in a wide variety of roles, from R&D or marketing, and to the C-suite itself.

Meet business scientists: Tim O’Hare CSciDr Abilash Nair CSciLaura Wilkinson CSciApostolos Fakis CSciNigel Marriott CSciSiobhan Creanor CSci

Communicator scientist

Communicator scientist delivering a speech

The Communicator Scientist combines their science and technological know-how with an ability to communicate. They enthuse, inform and get their message across through an empathy and understanding of the needs of the audience, expertise in how media and other communication channels work and, of course a deep knowledge of the science involved.

Science communicators are found across TV and radio, advertising and promotion, regulation and public affairs as well as social media. They may also have a full time job as another type of scientist.

Meet communicator scientists: Dr Kristy Turner CSciTeachDr Sharon Ann Holgate CSciTim O’Hare CSciMegan De Ste Croix RSciIan Galloway CSciTeachNigel Marriott CSci

Developer scientist

Developer scientist working on a large machine

The Developer, or translational, Scientist uses the knowledge generated by others and transforms it into something that society can use. They might be developing products or services, ideas that change behaviour, improvements in health care and medicines, or the application of existing technology in new settings.

They are found in research environments and may be working with Entrepreneur and Business scientists to help bring their ideas to market.

Meet developer scientists: Katharine Samms CSciTim O’Hare CSciDr Abilash Nair CSciCiara Wild RSciSiobhan Creanor CSci

Entrepreneur scientist

Entrepreneur scientist standing in front of a large chart

The Entrepreneur Scientist makes innovation happen. Their scientific knowledge and connections are deep enough to be able to see opportunities for innovation – not just in business, but also in the public sector and other sectors of society.

They blend their science knowledge and credibility with people management skills, entrepreneurial flair and a strong understanding of business and finance, to start their own businesses or help grow existing companies.

Meet developer scientists: Hayley Pincott RSciTech

Explorer scientist

Explorer scientist examining the contents of test tubes

The Explorer Scientist is someone who, like the crew of the Enterprise, is on a journey of discovery “to boldly go where no one has gone before”. They rarely focus on a specific outcome or impact, rather they want to know the next piece of the jigsaw of scientific understanding and knowledge.

They are likely to be found in a university or research centre, or in Research & Development (R&D) at an organisation, and are likely to be working alone.

Meet explorer scientists: Jemma Walker RSci

Investigator scientist

Investigator scientists in a lab discussing results at a computer

The Investigator Scientist digs into the unknown observing, mapping, understanding and piecing together in-depth knowledge and data, setting out the landscape for others to translate and develop.

They are likely to be found in a university or research centre, or in Research & Development (R&D) at an organisation, working in a team and likely in a multi-disciplinary environment.

Meet investigator scientists: Megan De Ste Croix RSciDr Abilash Nair CSciSamantha Powell CSciApostolos Fakis CSciSiobhan Creanor CSciAndy Lee CSciNick Adams RSci

Policy scientist

Policy scientist engaged in debate at a meeting

The Policy Scientist uses their science and technical knowledge, as well as their understanding of government and policy making, to ensure that legislation and policy have a sound evidence base. Some policy scientists describe themselves as 75% scientist and 25% politician.

This type of scientist is employed and involved at many levels and in many environments including government and Parliament, NGOs, campaigning groups and charities.

Are you a policy scientist? If you’re on our professional registers, contact us about the possibility of being featured as one of our case studies.

Regulator scientist

Regulator scientist holding up a test tube

The Regulator Scientist is there to reassure the public that systems and technology are reliable and safe, through monitoring and regulation. They will have a mix of skills and while they may not get involved in things like lab work, they will have a thorough understanding of the science and the processes involved in monitoring its use or application.

They are found in regulatory bodies, such as the Food Standards Agency, and in a wide range of testing and measurement services.

Meet regulator scientists: Dr Jemma-Anne Lonsdale (PhD) CSciTim O’Hare CSciJulia Duckworth RSciCiara Wild RSciAndy Lee CSciGary Thorpe RSciTech

Teacher scientist

Male teacher standing at a whiteboard teaching a class

The Teacher Scientist is trained in science, sharing their knowledge and understanding to train the next generation of scientists. Their application of science is combined with pedagogic skill and passion for teaching others.

This type of scientist works in schools, colleges, universities and other educational organisations, developing their tools and experience for teaching and learning.

Meet teacher scientists: Dr Kristy Turner CSciTeachTrevor Bennett RSciTechIan Galloway CSciTeachJennifer Glenc RSciApostolos Fakis CSciNigel Marriott CSciSiobhan Creanor CSciAmardeep Ghattaoraya CSciAndy Lee CSci

Technician scientist

Service provider scientist holding a flask in a lab

The Technician Scientist provides operational scientific services in a wide range of ways. These are the scientists we have come to depend on within the health service, forensic science, food science, health and safety, materials analysis and testing, education and many other areas.

Rarely visible, this type of scientist is found in laboratories and other support service environments across a wide variety of sectors.

Meet technician scientists: Laura Wilson RSci

Become a professionally registered scientist

Find how you could become a professionally registered scientist with the Science Council.

Careers presents… Graduate Recruitment & Internship Festival

Responding to demand from employers and students, we’re pleased to announce our first Graduate Recruitment & Internship Festival. This will take place on 14 June 2019, the day before the RUSU Summer Ball in 3Sixty!

Come along to the recruitment zone in 3Sixty, get your CV checked, or try one of our helpful workshops. Our warm up act, the ‘Prepare for the Fair’ podcast, will help you prepare for the day.

With graduate roles for finalists and internships and placements for other years, and free entry, it’s one festival this summer that you really shouldn’t miss.

Here’s the line-up:

    • Over 30 organisations with live graduate, internship and placement vacancies, including Google, FDM Group, Splunk, Mondelez International and many more!
    • Careers Unplugged – our ‘support act’, featuring expert coaches from the Careers team, will provide you with CV reviews, careers advice and more. (If you want a CV review, remember to bring a copy with you!)
    • The Reading Internship Scheme – on hand to help you prepare for your internship. All our internships are paid, based in the Reading area, and available for 4 to 8 weeks over the Summer. Click here for the latest vacancies
    • Fringe careers workshops to take you from Graduate to Hired – including:
      • Finding Internships and Placements
      • Job hunting with recruitment agencies
      • Application essentials… and more.

      Please check My Jobs Online for the times and locations of workshops you’d like to attend.

    • Attendees will also receive a 10% discount from the Bagel Man (Cerealworks @ RUSU) on the day.


    Follow us:  #UoRHired #RDGGrad19



What do graduates earn in popular entry-level roles?








This content was provided by Sophie Austin, Site Manager at Findcourses.co.uk


Deciding what to do after University can be tricky, especially if you’re unsure what kind of career might be your best fit. Some factors to consider when choosing a career path might be:

  • Hours (9 to 5, or shifts?)
  • Office-based or travelling?
  • Working closely with others, or more independently?
  • Expected earnings


The Office of National Statistics releases figures each year on the average salary for over 400 jobs, delving into the details on wage per hour, per year and the potential for bonuses.

We’ve rounded up the average salaries for some of the most popular graduate jobs, so you can get a flavour of what you could potentially earn in these roles.


1.  Marketing Assistant

Marketing assistants’ roles are varied and they’re great for the creatively minded, as well as those who enjoy data analysis, as a marketeer will often need to dig into things like web statistics. A career in marketing could also lead to a specialism in a certain area (e.g. search engine optimisation).

 What’s the average salary?

Marketing assistants earn an average of £22,149 full-time and £11,674 part time per year. At the top of the career ladder, marketing directors earn an average of £93,967 per year.

All marketing professionals captured in the ONS report showed a yearly salary increase of roughly 3%. Across all roles surveyed, there was an average of 3.6% difference between men’s salaries and women’s salaries.

The male/female split for marketing assistants is 36% men, 64% women.


2.  Teaching Assistant

Teaching assistants work in the classroom to provide support for teachers and students. As a teaching assistant you might work closely with a pupil that needs additional help, or you may work with a whole class to help them understand a task or project. If you’re considering a teaching career and are unsure about pursuing a PGCE, becoming a teaching assistant is a great way to get a feel for the profession.

What’s the average salary?

Full-time teaching assistants earn an average of £16,292 full-time and £10,190 part-time. Educational support assistants (e.g. laboratory technicians in schools) earn a similar wage: £16,217 full-time and £9,553 part-time.

Wages for teaching assistants are also on the rise, going up by 2.9% in the past year. It’s estimated that the gender pay-gap between men and women working as teaching assistants is 1%, which is significantly lower than the UK national average of 9.3%.

The male/female split of teaching assistants is 8% male, 92% female.


3.  Web Developer

If you’re studying a degree in ICT, programming, coding or software, becoming a junior web developer will give you the opportunity to develop applications, code and redesign web structures so they are better suited for their users.

What’s the average salary?

Web designers earn an average salary of £32,878 and junior web developers £26,000 per year. Unsurprisingly in this digital age, the salaries of junior and senior web developers are on the rise, increasing by roughly 1.7% year on year.

It’s estimated that the gender pay gap between men and women in these roles is 6.2%, which is below the national average of 9.3%.

The male/female split for roles in web development is 79% male, 21% female.


4.  Civil Service Fast Stream

The Civil Service Fast Stream teaches graduates the skills and knowledge required to move into senior leadership roles within the Civil Service. You’ll be placed in a department within the Civil Service and offered structured development.

Average salary: £28,000 starting salary. Once you’ve completed the scheme and are promoted, you will be earning on average between £45,000 and £55,000.

The male/female split for the civil service fast stream is 51.7% male, 48.3% female (in terms of successful applicants).


5.   Nursing

Nursing is a varied role that has a wealth of specialisations depending on your interests. 54% of nurses work in the NHS, compared with 37% in private and acute primary care.

Average salary: A nurse’s starting salary tends to be between £22,128 and £28,746 at Band 5 (not including a London supplement.) Throughout your career, the average salary for nurses is £32,388 full-time and £16,800 part-time

The gender pay gap for nurses in full-time work is 0%, which means that men and women earn the same per hour. Part-time the figure is slightly different, with women earning 2.1% less than men.

Male/Female Split: 14% male, 86% female


6.  Risk Analyst

A risk analyst looks at a company’s investment portfolio and analyses the risks involved in financial and commercial decisions. This role requires a high level of analytical skills, and often the risk analyst will make recommendations to limit the potential risk for their company.

Average salary: Junior risk analyst salaries start around £30,500 per year. After 3 to 5 years’ experience, salaries can increase to between £41,000 and £57,000 per year.  Senior Risk Analysts can earn an average of £87,000 per year.

The male/female split for risk analysts: 67% male, 33% female


7.  Bookkeeper/Payroll Manager/Accountancy Clerks

Bookkeepers are necessary to record and monitor a business’s financial health. Their role is to gather and record all the financial transactions (payments in and payments out), process invoices, and forecast and calculate profit and loss.

Average salary: Bookkeepers earn an average salary of £27,266 full-time and £11,693 part-time, which has increased an average of 4.1% year on year.  Bookkeepers often go on to become finance officers (£30,112 per year), financial managers (£66,868) or financial directors (£88,749).

It’s estimated that women are paid 9.7% less than men as bookkeepers, earning £12.00 per hour to a man’s £13.29 per hour.

The male/female split for bookkeeping roles is 33% male, 67% female.


8.  Events Co-ordinator

Becoming an events co-ordinator means you value (and are good at!) organisation and communication. Events co-ordinators can be involved at every level of the event planning process, from receiving enquiries to ensuring successful event delivery.

Average salary: An events co-ordinator starts on an average salary of £22,149. Once promoted, Conference and Events Managers earn an average salary of £30,875 per year. At the top of the ladder, Directors/Heads of Events earn an average salary between £50,000 and £70,000.

The gender pay gap is in women’s favour, possibly due to the higher proportion of women working in conferences and events. Women earn 6.5% more than men full-time.

The male/female split for events coordinators is: 36% male, 64% female


9.  Administrative Assistant

Working as an administrative assistant is a great gateway to a number of different industries. Most companies, regardless of size, rely on administrative assistants to ensure the day-to-day running of the business and to manage clerical duties, payroll, client interactions and front-of-house operations.

What’s the average salary?

Salaries in administration vary from industry by industry. The average salary across all industries for administrative assistants is £25,050 per year. NGO administrators earn an average of £27,250 and financial administrative assistants take home £26,067. If you continue your career in administration, business administrators can earn an average of £48,450 per year, which is nearly £13k above the UK average.

Administrative assistants have seen wages increase an average of 3.2% year on year. It’s estimated that the gender pay gap is 8.2% in favour of men.


10.  Scientific Laboratory Technician

Scientific laboratory technicians work with complex scientific equipment, often performing highly technical diagnostic tests that help scientists focus on the complex analytical processes involved with research. Technicians can work across a number of different scientific fields.

Average salary: Lab technicians start on a salary between £15,000 and £19,000. As you progress, the average salary is between £24,115 and £30,313 full-time. These wages are on the rise too, with scientific laboratory technicians seeing an increase of between 1.2 and 3.4% year on year.

Male/female split: 55% male, 45% female

Didn’t find your role? Check out the average salaries for more jobs, including director positions so you can plan your career trajectory.

Teacher Training Application Workshops




The Department for Education is running a series of Initial Teacher Training application workshops from April to June 2019. These events are tailored towards helping candidates create the best possible teacher training application.

What’s in it for me?
Each event will provide a presentation on the application process, including tips on using UCAS, personal statements and interviews. You’ll also have a 1-1 conversation with a Teacher Training Adviser, who can review your draft personal statement and advise you on how to create the best application that you can.

Where are the events happening?

South East

  • 30 April, 5.30 – 8 pm, Holiday Inn, Guildford
  • 21 May,  5.30 – 8pm, Oxford Town Hall


  • 06 April, 10 am – 12.30pm, Holiday Inn, Camden Lock
  • 04 May, 10 am – 12.30pm, DoubleTree by Hilton, West End
  • 22/06 – 10 am – 12.30pm, Clayton Hotel, Chiswick

To register for a workshop, please visit: https://getintoteaching.education.gov.uk/teaching-events

Legal work experience with the National Trust






The National Trust is a charity which looks after places of historic interest and natural beauty for ever, for everyone. The Trust owns over 775 miles of coast line, 250,000 hectares of countryside and 3620 listed buildings (including mansion houses, castles, farms, villages, holiday homes, pubs and a gold mine).

About the Legal Team
Managing all of this land and the commercial operations which go with it requires a lot of legal support. The Trust has a legal team of 17 lawyers (with particular specialisms in property law, commercial law and dispute resolution), five support staff and three volunteers. The team is involved in a wide variety of work, from buying new properties to commissioning new art, protecting the Trust’s brand to working with tenants, helping with nature conservation and dealing with the impact of major infrastructure projects (like HS2), and responding to consultations on legislative reform.

Work experience with the Legal Team

The Trust’s legal team is offering the chance to spend a week with them this summer. Successful applicants will get hands-on experience of the legal team’s work, as well as talks about specialist areas of law and the Trust’s activities.

Who should apply?
People who are keen to pursue a career in law, have an interest in charities and a passion for history and/or the natural environment.

When is it?
The placement week will run from 24 to 28 June 2019.

Where is it?
National Trust headquarters in Swindon, known as Heelis (postcode SN2 2NA). Successful applicants will need to arrange their own transport. Heelis is a 15 minute walk from Swindon train station or parking is available nearby at £1 a day.

Are there any requirements?
Applicants must be at least 18 years old.

How do I apply?
Download the National Trust Legal Team – work experience application form and submit by 28 April 2019. Please do not send a CV.

When will I know if I’ve been successful?
If there are a lot of applicants, the Legal Team may need to have telephone calls with some applicants or other types of further assessment before deciding who has been successful. We will let applicants know whether they have been successful by 22 May 2019.

What if I have questions?
Email: LegalWorkExperienceHeelis@nationaltrust.org.uk


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