Introducing… Mary Turner Wolstenholme

During Women’s History Month we often focus on great women and women pioneers. But for Women’s History Month 2022, here at the Department of History, we are privileged to be able to concentrate on one of our own, Mary Turner Wolstenholme. Mary represents so many women who might have considered themselves ordinary but whose achievements tell us so much about women’s lives and opportunities.  With the kind permission her daughters Gilly Pinner and Julie Wolstenholme and through their generous donation of their mother’s documents and photographs from her time at Reading we present:  Mary Turner Wolstenholme.

Mary Turner completed a BA Hons in Geography and graduated on 1st July 1948. She graduated in the same year that the eminent historian Doris Stenton received her doctorate in History. 1948 was also an auspicious year that saw the founding of the NHS. After graduating from Reading in 1948 with a BA Hons in Geography, Mary (known as Molly) went on to complete her teacher’s diploma at Manchester Victoria University. She subsequently became a teacher at a local high school in the Rossendale Valley, Lancashire, known as Whitewell Bottom. She married Robert Wolstenholme in 1952 and her daughter Gilly was born in 1956 and Julie in 1959. Mary retuned to teaching when her own daughters started school, as a primary school teacher, first at Stubbins County Primary then Edenfield CofE Primary. She continued teaching at Edenfield, later becoming Deputy Head, until taking early retirement in the 1980s. Through the kind gift of Mary’s personal papers we can see her journey to becoming an educator herself though her time at Reading.

 

An image of female staff and students posed together outside a university building in Reading.

Female undergraduates and academic staff at Reading, 1947

 

Rag Week 12th March 1947

Rag week is almost a lost tradition, it was a designated week when the university and the town came together; students organised fayres and a procession of floats to raise money for local charities.

An image of a horse drawn carriage and people surrounding it An image of people marching in the streets. An image of a float going down a busy street. An image of people driving a car.

An image of Kimber, Bill Ashton, The Mayor, Brian Robinson, Roger Williams in the Berkshire Records Office.

Kimber, Bill Ashton, The Mayor, Brian Robinson, Roger Williams
Students attempt to kidnap Phoebe Cusden, first female mayor of Reading and eminent peace campaigner. Read more about Phoebe Cusden at the Berkshire Records Office where her papers are held The Berkshire Record Office

 

Final Examinations

BA Geography examinations consisted of eight 3-hour papers.  How would you have done?

An image of a scanned geography final exam paper from June 1948

Other papers included: Human and Historical Geography, Geography (PRACTICAL), Physical Geography, Regional Geography (EUROPE), Regional Geography (BRITISH ISLES AND FRANCE), Economic Geography, Cartography

 

Graduands for presentation

When Mary graduated there were a surprising number of women gaining a Bachelor of Arts degree from the Faculty of Letters.  For the Bachelor of Science degrees however the number of women dwindles hugely!

An image of a scanned graduands for presentation document.

Doris Mary Stenton (Lady Stenton), was awarded her doctoral degree D. Litt. from the Faculty of Letters at the same presentation.

An image of a scanned graduates document.

An image of graduates in 1948

Graduation, July 1st, 1948 (Geography Group):
Mike Banyon, Shirley Jones, Frank Pierce
Isobel Ayers, Sheila Knight, Mary Turner, Ron Waters
Ron Stone, Margaret Lawes, Mags Johnson, Frances Pilling

 

 

Reference in application for Education Methods (modern PGCE)

What Mary made of her reference from Professor Austen Miller in 1949 we do not know but it is eye-wateringly misogynistic by C21st standards! While Mary was of a ‘frank, cheerful and warm-hearted disposition’, she might not make ‘a great scholar’. In fact

‘The qualities that recommend her are the more

 personal ones of appearance and presence…’

 

An image of a scanned letter dates 1949

In 1878, the University of London was the first to award degrees to women. Both Oxbridge universities were among the last to grant women degrees on the same terms as men: Oxford in 1920 but not until 1948 at Cambridge, the same year that Mary Turner graduated from Reading. The granting of degrees by Cambridge caused a huge amount of unrest with male undergraduates burning effigies of women students and throwing fireworks at the windows of women’s colleges. Even then, the university was allowed to limit the numbers of female students relative to men and continued to exercise that power to the full. The University of Reading awarded degrees to women on the same terms as men from its inception in 1926.

 

Mary Turner, BA Geography, 1st July 1948

An image of Mary Turner, BA Geography on 01 July 1948

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Holocaust Memorial Day 2022 – Thursday 27th January 2022

 

An image of the Holocaust Memorial in Berlin. We see concrete slabs arranged in a grid pattern. A beam of sunlight enters the image from the top right-hand corner, and beautiful light shines onto of the memorial pillars.


Holocaust Memorial Day
in an international day that is marked to remember those who were murdered for who they were.

By ‘visiting’ Yad Vashem, the World Holocaust Remembrance Center digitally, you can explore digital collections including  ‘The Online Photo Archive – Visual testimony of Jewish life before, during and after the Holocaust.’, ‘The Righteous Database’, featuring rescue stories, photos, and information.

 

The founders of Holocaust Memorial Day UK have provided a variety of different resources designed to enable you to mark Holocaust Memorial Day together, from home. Some ideas they suggest include:

Cook together – “Food is a great way to learn about other cultures and share a new experience, even while apart. Use these resources to organise your own online cook-along event.”

Inspire together – “Make a moving film from your home by each reading lines from a poem about the Holocaust or genocide. Alternatively, your group could put pen to paper and write your own poem, which you could then film.”

 

 

Gal Jackson, a current 2nd year Biomedical Engineering undergraduate student at UoR andnd the Secretary of the student Jewish Society, has translated a small section from her grandmother’s testimonial for us to mark Holocaust Memorial Day this year.

“I was born in Tomaszów Lubelski, Poland. When the war started, we were three kids: my sister Leah was the eldest, my brother Arieh, and me. I remember the bombing, it was midday, around noon. Mom was just about to leave to bring dad his lunch to the store; my family had a small grocery store on the main street. My sister Leah, who was already mature, started crying and didn’t let my mother leave. While my mother was deciding whether to go, dad already closed the store and came back home because there was a massive bombing on Tomaszów Lubelski, it seemed they bombed the Jewish neighbourhood. People ran to the fields for cover, I know because our house was on the outskirts of town. And since then, I think life never returned to how it was before.”

– Sarah Jackson

 

These images have been created by student representatives from the student Jewish Society, alongside our UoR social media team to be shared today.

 

 

 

Reading Council is hosting an in-person event which will also be livestreamed:

Holocaust Memorial Day
An evening of reflection to commemorate victims of the Holocaust will be held on Wednesday 26 January. The free event will be a mix of live and online elements, including speakers, choral performances, and candle lighting.

The event will begin at 7:30pm in the Council chamber, and will also be live-streamed on the Reading Council Facebook page. 30 free audience places are available, booked in advance and first-come, first-served. No walk-ins on the night will be accepted. For further information and to register for a place at the event please contact events@reading.gov.uk.

 

 

The UK Ceremony for Holocaust Memorial Day 2022 will be streamed online on Thursday 27 January at 7pm:

The Ceremony will run from 7–8pm. Register here to watch the Ceremony online.

 At 8pm, get ready to Light the Darkness with us. Households across the UK will be lighting candles and safely putting them in their windows to:

  • remember those who were murdered for who they were
  • stand against prejudice and hatred today

Light a candle and put it in your window at 8pm on 27 January 2022 (if you are able to do so safely).Use hashtags #HolocaustMemorialDay #LightTheDarkness

 

 

 

Welcoming the Year of the Tiger!

(This post includes Chinese traditional characters and phrases with Cantonese 粵拼 jyutping and Mandarin 拼音 pinyin pronunciations respectively)

 

Lunar New Year / 農曆新年 (nung lik san nin / nóng lì xīn nián) is on Tuesday 01 February this year. This is the Year of the Tiger.

When is Lunar New Year?

Lunar New Year falls on a different date each year as it follows a traditional lunisolar calendar whose dates indicate both the phase of the moon and the time of the solar year. This coming Lunar New Year is on Tuesday 01 February 2022.

 

Why is it the Year of the Tiger?

Each year is represented by one of the 12 Zodiac animals. The zodiac system was originally connected with worship of animals and has existed in Chinese culture since the Qin dynasty which was around 2000 years ago! As such, the zodiac signs play an integral part in Chinese culture. Each animal has different characteristics and meanings which is often used to determine a person’s fortune and luck for the coming year and even their compatibility with other Zodiacs. For instance, those born in the Year of the Ox are said to often be decisive, honest, dependable, and hardworking.

The order the animals come in are:

rat (鼠 – syu / shǔ )
ox (牛 – ngau / niú)
tiger (虎 – fu / hǔ)
rabbit (兔 – tou / tù)
dragon (龍 – lung / lóng)
snake (蛇 – se / shé)
horse (馬 – maa / mǎ)
goat (羊 – yeung / yáng)
monkey (猴 – hau / hóu)
rooster (雞 – gai / jī)
dog (狗 – gau / gǒu)
pig (猪 – zyu / zhū)

(Image sourced from: https://img.meijingku.com/d/file/2020/02/25/3b1eb3eb6572fcbec8b09e9b01f1d605.jpg?x-oss-process=style/w_450-h_auto)

 

You can find out more about the Chinese Zodiac on this TED talk: The Chinese Zodiac, Explained – ShaoLan and on this Ted’Ed video: The Myth Behind the Chinese Zodiac – Megan Campisi and Pen-Pen Chen

 

Celebrations and Decorations

Lunar New Year is celebrated by more than 20% of the world! Many parts of Asia, including China, Hong Kong SAR, Singapore, South Korea, and Vietnam celebrate Lunar New Year as a national holiday. Usually, celebrations begin on Lunar New Year Eve and can last around 15 days.

Before celebrations begin, it is tradition for people to clean their houses thoroughly, almost like having a big ‘spring clean’. Decorations are then displayed once the house is clean.

Decorations for Lunar New Year are predominantly red – the colour represents happiness and good fortune. People often decorate by hanging up art and calligraphy illustrating certain words and phrases. The most common is 福 (fuk / fú) – meaning happiness and good fortune. It can be written with calligraphy onto a square piece of red paper like in the image below. 福 (fuk / fú) is commonly put up on doors, windows and walls around homes, offices, schools, and stores.

(Image sourced from: https://img.meijingku.com/d/file/2020/02/25/3b1eb3eb6572fcbec8b09e9b01f1d605.jpg?x-oss-process=style/w_450-h_auto)

 

If you have studied or worked at the University of Reading for a little while, you may remember seeing or even picking up one of the 福 (fuk / fú) badges that were created in celebration of the Year of the Pig in 2019.

 

Paper Cutting Arts (窗花 – coeng faa / chuāng huā)

The Chinese character 福 is often incorporated into other decorations such as paper cutting arts. This is a folk craft that is usually seen on windows with the literal translation meaning ‘window flower’. The images on these decorations often include fish (a pun for blessings), grains (representing hope for a good harvest) as well as dragons and peaches (symbols from folktales and legends). The zodiac for the year is often the image on these decorations too.

Lanterns ( – dang lung / dēng lóng)

There are often different activities for each day of the Lunar New Year holidays, often including the lantern festival. Some places still release lanterns for the festival, but for environmental reasons, many people choose to simply display their lanterns at home. There are many different styles of lanterns that are displayed ranging from red spheres to dragons!

Red Packets

(Image Sourced from: https://marketingweek.imgix.net/content/uploads/2018/02/15170414/chinese-new-year-750.jpg?auto=compress,format,&crop=faces,entropy,edges&fit=crop&q=60&w=750&h=400)

 

Red packets (red envelope / Lai See 利是/ Hong Bao 紅包 / Ang Pao) There are many names for these little red gifts! But all of these contain money. It is tradition for many in the ESEA (East and Southeast Asian) community and diaspora to exchange these as a symbol of good luck. It is tradition for elders to give them to children in hope of passing on good fortune and blessings for the year to come. Younger generations also commonly give their elders red packets as a sign of gratitude and as a blessing of longevity.

 

Online Activities and Events
Lunar New Year is a time for family, and this is seen as the most important part of the holiday.

With the ongoing pandemic and various restrictions on travel, many continue not be able to see family and loved ones in-person. Nevertheless, where possible, some celebrations continue to take place in-person and some online!

See below for some of the online events we have come across!

 

  • Celebrating Chinese/Lunar New Year 2022 at SACLL

Friday 28 Jan 2022, 12:30-1:30pm

Online

You’ll be able to:

watch how UoR alumni celebrate the biggest festival in various places of China

play games

show talents

have fun

and hopefully win some dumplings

Sign up here to join us at SACLL to celebrate Chinese/Lunar New Year and the arrival of spring or contact SACLL Director Carrie Zhang:c.x.zhang@reading.ac.uk

Download the Celebrating Chinese/Lunar New Year 2022 at SACLL flyer here.

 

  • The Lunar New Year Early Years Learning Resource

Free resource accessible online here

(https://www.besean.co.uk/resources-posts/the-lunar-new-year-early-years-learning-resource)

In collaboration with Early Years and Primary education experts with a combined experience of over 25 years, besea.n have created a learning resource that takes the work out of lesson planning.

There are two packs available to download. One contains all the information and activities, the second is an image resource to support learning.

The packs are free to download, however, we encourage a donation towards our non-profit organisation in order to continue our work advocating for East and South East Asian communities, including the creation of educational resources.

 

Wednesday 26 Jan 2022 at 10:00 | Eventbrite

Part 2 – Chinese New Year Virtual Celebration (10:38-11:00)

Chinese New Year Cooking Show

Performance 1: Chorus (tbc)

Performance 2: Traditional Chinese dance (tbc)

Performance 3: Music ensemble “You Are the Miracle”

 

Friday 29th January 2022 – Daytime

Join in online with the National Maritime Museum in Greenwich for a fantastic new year celebration

 

Saturday 5th February from 5:00pm – 7:00pm

Chinese New Year celebrations, online again from Birmingham Chinatown! Celebrate Chinese New Year in the comforts of your own home yet again with an online celebration on

 

 

 

 

International Human Rights Day

International Human Rights Day (IHRD) is observed every year on 10 December – the day the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR is a milestone document, which proclaims the inalienable rights that everyone is entitled to as a human being – regardless of race, colour, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

To mark International Human Rights Day (IHRD) 2021, several staff members across UoR have written blog pieces about protected characteristics and their importance.

 

 

Sex

Professor Rosemary Auchmuty, Professor, School of Law

 

When the Equality Act was passed in 2010, it swept up all existing non-discrimination legislation into one statute. Of the categories of discrimination it encompassed, sex was the first to be recognised.  Until just over a century ago, women – members of the female sex – were barred from a whole range of jobs and public offices, excluded from educational and social opportunities, and could not exercise the vote or stand for Parliament.  In 1918, thanks to long feminist campaigns, some women got the vote, and could become MPs; in 1919, thanks to more long feminist campaigns, the Sex Disqualification (Removal) Act was passed, opening many professions (including law) to women for the first time.   But the Act said nothing about treating them the same way as men were treated: so women continued to be paid less than men and were routinely dismissed (or passed over for appointment in the first place) because they were or might become pregnant.

Twentieth-century feminists built on the legacy of nineteenth-century feminism by campaigning not only for equal educational and job opportunities but for legal measures that took account of the actual physical differences between men and women. For example, women’s reproductive role meant that, in order to enter the workplace, they needed access to contraception and abortion as well as childcare arrangements.

Only in 1975 did the Sex Discrimination Act make it illegal to discriminate against women in education, employment, and the provision of services.  These provisions were subsumed in the Equality Act 2010 in recognition of the fact that sexist discrimination was still ongoing, and that it would take many more years for women to catch up with men because of their long history of exclusion and discrimination.  (These are similar arguments to the justification for ‘race’ to be a protected characteristic.)  Not only this, but earlier victories tend to be lost in bad times or through backlash: if the current pandemic has shown us anything, it is that women have suffered worse in terms of pay and job security than men and that they still carry the heaviest burden of care and domestic work.  Differential treatment is still often justified precisely on the basis that only members of the female sex get pregnant and give birth.  So this is one reason why we need ‘sex’ to be a protected characteristic in law.

A second reason to protect sex in law is the recognition that women suffer disproportionately from sexual abuse, violence, and exploitation, and that these are acted out by male bodies on female bodies.  (Here, too, we see similarities with racist abuse and violence, also protected by the ‘race’ category in the Equality Act.)  Every woman on this university campus is alert to the possibility of sexual danger and probably all have experienced it.  Having a ‘sex’ category permits the provision of female-only spaces for women’s safety and protection and also to meet the needs of religions (religion is another protected characteristic in law) that require the segregation of male and female bodies in certain contexts like toilets or changing rooms.

There have been moves to replace the category of ‘sex’ in the Equality Act with a new category, ‘gender identity’.  But gender identity is quite different, since it does not necessarily map on to biological sex.  It does not recognise women’s long history of exclusion and discrimination on biological grounds or the specific roles of female bodies in reproduction and as objects of sexual abuse.  So we need to keep ‘sex’ in the Equality Act and, with it, the recognition that being a woman is more than simply an idea: it is a physical reality, with social consequences; and for both those reasons it needs protection.

 

 

 

 

 

International Human Rights Day 2021

International Human Rights Day (IHRD) is observed every year on 10 December – the day the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR is a milestone document, which proclaims the inalienable rights that everyone is entitled to as a human being – regardless of race, colour, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

To mark International Human Rights Day (IHRD) 2021, several staff members across UoR have written blog pieces about protected characteristics and their importance.

 

Reflecting on Disability targeted violence

Dr Yota Dimitriadi, Associate Professor, Institute of Education

 

I was born with a physical impairment, the result of medical complications during labour. My twin sibling did not survive. I never thought of myself as Disabled and grew up in a family that encouraged me passionately to explore the world and try things out (a social model of disability) in spite of the world around me telling me what I could not do (a medical model of disability). Some family friends called me ‘hook arm’ or ‘The Beggar’ in a loving attempt for me to change the way I used my impaired arm and fit in! The personification of difference and vulnerability became the language they used to encourage me to fit in. These were considered acts of love rather than ableist attitudes that needed to be challenged.

 

My physical impairment is not too obvious and over the years I also became very good at covering it. Covering became my norm and I did all I could not to draw attention to my difference. Whether my approach as a young person was right or wrong I do not know but it shaped me and made me good at problem solving. I did not want to be pitied for the physical things I could not do [though it got me out of P.E. sometimes]. I did not want to be seen as ‘weak’, as history had shown to me what happens to the ‘weak’. Over centuries the economic justification for forced sterilisation, overmedication, involuntary euthanasia, killing of Disabled people happened as they were seen as less worthy and their lives less valuable or as a solution to wider social problems. The Eugenics movement and the pass of the ‘The Mental Deficiency Act (1913) in the UK encouraged further ableist approaches that some people are better than others and as a result their lives are worth more than others. The ‘idiots, the ‘imbeciles’ and the ‘feeble minded’ were ostracised and institutionalised.

 

Negative and overgeneralised portrayals or accusations of Disabled people in the press, especially during times of economic crises, as ‘welfare recipients and favoured in access to resources’ (Hall, 2019: 9) contribute to demonisation and mistrust towards disabled people that can lead to further discriminatory approaches and hostility. Such press coverage isolates Disabled people more, perpetuates stigma around disability and becomes part of a wider set of barriers of a disablist society.

It may also lead to microaggressions, that unfortunately several disabled people experience every day. Sometimes it can also lead to more overt expressions of disapproval in private and public spaces: from name calling to physical attacks on them, their property or their support dogs. 10 out of the 21 crimes that were reported to the police daily in England and Wales in 2019-20 involved an act of violence against a disabled person, including assault and harassment (Leonard Cheshire, 2020). Quarmby’s study (2015) reported on offender motivations ranging from disabled people been seen as ‘benefit scroungers’ to ‘jealousy of the perceived ‘perks’ of disability’, such as having an adapted car or being accused of being ‘in the way’, for instance on the buses. For some Disabled people violence, harassment and exploitation is not the result of random hateful strangers but happen systematically within institutional care and domestic contexts (Sin et al, 2009).

Targeted violence and abuse against Disabled people are not new and research into disability hate crime is in its infancy. However, while disability hate crime incidents have increased by 11.5%, only 1.6% of all cases receive a charge (Leonard Cheshire, 2020). Many times disability hate crimes go unreported because Disabled people may be scared, isolated or because they have no trust that they will be taken seriously, treated with respect or supported when they report these incidents. The idea of vulnerability associated with Disabled people also positions them as having to expect some degree of discrimination as part of their daily lives and shifts the focus away from the impairment in such crimes. Roulstone and Mason-Bish (2013) discuss that as a result, assumptions can be made by the police that perpetrators are motivated by an individual’s perceived vulnerability rather than their impairment and the motivated crime is a result of disablist attitudes.

 

I am here today having a voice because of the actions of other people before me who were imprisoned, castrated, killed because of their difference or in their attempt to fight for equal rights to life and work. As we are celebrating the UN International Human Rights Day in 2021, we are celebrating the otherness that we all have. Recognising, reporting and raising awareness about disability hate crime may not change the prejudice against Disabled people but it will highlight that disability rights are human rights. Disabled people have been in the periphery of social action for centuries. Without their active involvement in challenging misconceptions and in decision making processes, prejudice, mistrust and hostility against them will remain. This is why the disability movement motto is ‘Nothing about us, without us’.

 

 

 

 

References

Hall, E. (2019). A critical geography of disability hate crime. Area, 51(2), 249-256. https://doi.org/10.1111/area.12455

Leonard Cheshire (2020). Reports of violent disability hate crime continue to rise as number of police charges fall again. https://www.leonardcheshire.org/about-us/our-news/press-releases/reports-violent-disability-hate-crime-continue-rise-number-police

Quarmby, K. (2015). To combat disability hate crime, we must understand why people commit it. The Guardian, 22 July. https://www.theguardian.com/society/2015/jul/22/combat-disability-hate-crime-understand-people-commit

Roulstone A., & Mason-Bish, H. (2013). Disability, hate crime and violence (eds.). Routledge, London

Sin, C., Hedges, A., Cook, C., Mguni, N. & Comber, N. (2009). Disabled people’s experiences of targeted violence and hostility. Equality and Human Rights Commission, London

 

International Human Rights Day 2021

International Human Rights Day (IHRD) is observed every year on 10 December – the day the United Nations General Assembly adopted, in 1948, the Universal Declaration of Human Rights (UDHR). The UDHR is a milestone document, which proclaims the inalienable rights that everyone is entitled to as a human being – regardless of race, colour, religion, sex, language, political or other opinion, national or social origin, property, birth or other status.

To mark International Human Rights Day (IHRD) 2021, several staff members across UoR have written blog pieces about protected characteristics and their importance.

 

Age

Professor Arlene Astell, Professor in Neurodegenerative Disease, School of Psychology & Clinical Language Sciences

 

If anyone doubted the need to include ‘Age’ as a protected characteristic in the Equality Act, the COVID-19 pandemic has thrown a harsh spotlight on the needs of a large sector of the population. First, as we all know the majority of excess deaths from COVID-19 have occurred among older persons. The loss of life has affected millions of people across the world, with many heart-wrenching stories of families unable to visit their loved ones or even attend their funerals. Yet a shocking analysis produced by the UN Secretary General in September 2021 examining the impact of COVID-19 on older people, reported a rise in ageism and stigma towards ageing and older persons. The scale of this problem is quantified in another UN publication, their Global Report on Ageism, which suggests that half the world’s population is ageist, yet this is somehow regarded as “more acceptable” than discrimination against other groups. These findings indicate a major need for continued education and challenging of negative stereotypes and attitudes towards ageing.

 

Evidence of ageism is widespread in all aspects of life. For example, older workers who lost their jobs during the pandemic are finding it difficult to get back into employment as employers prefer younger candidates. This has major implications for an individual’s identity and sense of purpose which are increasingly important as we live longer and need to plan for life after paid employment. There is a huge difference between being able to proactively decide to reduce the time one works and being forced into early retirement, not least from a financial perspective. Additionally, older people actively resist stereotypes of ageing and try to continue to live the life they want.  For example, in my work around technology adoption, we have found that most people want to remain independent and be able to look after themselves and will use technology that helps them to remain at home. They are well aware of ageing stereotypes and will reject devices that make them look or feel dependent, frail or incapable.

 

In terms of ageing stereotypes, one condition – dementia – seems to epitomise the negative attitudes towards old age. I have worked with people living with dementia for my whole career, and it is a topic surrounded by myths and misconceptions. These are always unhelpful, and some are even harmful in terms of the lack of understanding about what people living with dementia experience and what they need. In terms of their human rights, people living with dementia struggle to enjoy them because they are excluded in many different ways. Dementia is an irreversible progressive brain disorder which means that over time people have difficulty looking after themselves. As with many other conditions, they come to rely on other people to provide care and support. However, the way people with dementia are viewed and treated is very different to people living with cancer or diabetes.

 

The explanation seems to because dementia relates to losing memory and other aspects of cognition, such as attention and concentration. From this we see the adoption and perpetuation of attitudes towards people with dementia that they are incapable and infantile, and viewed as unaware and unknowing of how they are being treated. What is most concerning is how easily these attitudes are taken on board and persist across society, suggesting that dementia matches and reinforces prevailing views of old age.

In respect of technology use, the pandemic has highlighted global inequalities associated with ageing. Specifically, the pandemic has seen the movement of many services including healthcare and banking, to online. Whilst this has been driven by the necessity of reducing human contact to reduce transmission and some would argue this is a positive change,

older adults are most likely to not have internet access or necessary equipment for using online services. For example, a report released by the Older Adults Technology Services, Inc. (OATS) and the Humana Foundation in January 2021 found that 42% of the over 65s in the United States, roughly 22 million people, lacked broadband access at home. In the UK, the picture is even more stark. Data from the Office of National Statistics shows that 67% of the 3 million people who are offline are aged 70 or over with another 32% aged between 50-69. These figures reflect the picture worldwide.

 

In recognition of the importance of addressing the ‘Digital Divide’, the theme for 2021 International Day of Older Persons was “Digital Equity for All Ages”. This highlighted economic and social inequalities as the major drivers of the digital divide as individuals largely rely on self-paying for devices and internet access. The widespread implications of this digital divide include lack of access to digital healthcare (including telehealth and apps for managing chronic conditions), social services and public health information, plus increased risk of social isolation. Challenging digital exclusion requires political will to ensure equitable access to the Internet and devices. It also requires training, resources and support for reaching older people and tackling of persistent stereotypes that they do not want or cannot use digital tools. IN 20 years of working with technology and older adults, including people living with dementia, I have always found them keen to try anything new.

 

 

 

 

 

Proud to be: Celebrating Black History Month

 

October is Black History Month and this year’s theme is Proud To Be. The campaign is aiming to make Black History Month 2021 unique and personal to individuals, families and communities. In addition to this aim, this theme also focuses on the achievements and contributions of Black people throughout history.  

 At the University of Reading, we are proud to be celebrating Black History Month and continuing conversations around race beyond just the month of October. In this blog piece, we’ve compiled a list of resources in various formats that encourage thinking and discussions on race for more than just a month.  

 

 

Books

on Black British History: 

on Anti-Racism: 

  • Why I’m No Longer Talking to White People About Race – Reni Eddo-Lodge  
  • So You Want To Talk About Race – Ijeoma Oluo 
  • The Good Ally – Novara Reid 

On Race:  

  • Afropean: Notes from Black Europe – Johnny Pitts
  • Biracial Britain: A Different Way of Looking at Race – Remi Adekoya
  • Brit(ish): On Race, Identity and Belonging – Afua Hirsh
  • In Black and White: A Young Barrister’s Story of Race and Class in a Broken Justice System – Alexandra Wilson
  • Mixed/Other: Explorations of Multiraciality in Modern Britain – Natalie Morris

 

 

Podcasts 

American Podcasts: 

 

 

Videos about Black British History: 

 

 

Videos about Anti-Racism: 

 

 

Resources & events:


 

Other resources: 

 

 

 

 

 

Bi Visibility Day is 23 Years Old!

Trigger warning: This article contains references to self-harm and domestic violence.  

 

Bi Visibility Day is marking it’s 23rd Year and we are excited to acknowledge and celebrate our Bi colleagues and students and remind our Ally colleagues and students that even after 23 years of marking this day, there are still challenges to overcome for this community within the LGBT+ community.  

As it falls on the 23rd of September, we thought we could go through 23 things to remember this Bi Visibility day:

 

23 Things to Remember on Bi Visibility Day:
 

  • No more erasure! 

Bi Erasure is a pervasive issue where the legitimacy and/or existence of bi identities is denied. Here are some ideas to help your bi friends fight invisibility and erasure. 

 

  • Avoid assumptions 

Avoid making assumptions based on someone’s previous or current partner. Follow their lead on language they use to define their relationship or identity and be aware that this could be fluid and subject to change.  

 

  • ‘Bi’ is an umbrella term   

Bi is a word we can use to describe several identities, attractions, and orientations.  According to bi.org: 

“Terms that fall under the bi umbrella include pansexual (attraction to all genders, with a political emphasis on nonbinary gender identities), polysexual (attraction to multiple sexes), omnisexual (attraction to all sexes), and multisexual (attraction to multiple sexes). Some people prefer the term fluid meaning that their attractions are not fixed and include people of more than one sex over time. “  

 

  • Be an Ally! 

You can join the LGBT+ Staff Network as an Ally, as well as signing up to our Bi inclusion training and learn about ways to support your bi colleagues. You can also pick up an UoR LGBT+/LGBT+ Ally lanyard and pronoun badge when you’re on campus to be a visible Ally! These are free to pick up at various places across campus including Whiteknights House reception and the Students’ Union reception. 

You can also check out this ‘10 Ways You Can Step Up as an Ally to Bi People‘ article over on the Stonewall website.

 

  • One in two 18-24 year olds in the UK do not identify as 100% straight 

study by YouGov, using the Kinsey scale, allows people to place themselves along a sexuality scale. Taken as a whole, 23% of the British public do not identify as straight.   

 

  • Bi people make up nearly half of the LGBT+ community 

According to a 2013 Pew research centre survey, bi people make up 44% of the LGBT+ community. MyUmbrella, who champion inclusion within the LGBT+ community in Reading, made this podcast last year talking about why we still need Bi Visibility day. 

 

  • Recognise and challenge biphobia 

If you witness biphobia or bi erasure, and you feel safe to do so, challenge this behaviour. You can use the University’s method for calling out (or calling in) detrimental behaviour, the UHT method – Getting involved – call out bad behaviour. 

You can also report this behaviour using the University’s reporting procedures – Harassment reporting and support.  

 

  • Uplift and support marginalised bi people 

This can be done by everyone within the bi community, as well as all allies.  

BAME bi people are further marginalised and discriminated against within the bi community,  Ace bi people are erased and excluded, bi men face stigma from the LGBT+ community and  so on. Intersectionality within the bi community often leads to further inequality. You can  help fight this by seeking out and supporting bi groups who explicitly support those people  who identify as having multiple, or intersecting, protected characteristics.  

Bi’s of colour, an organisation created “cos bisexuality isn’t just for white folks” sadly shut down operations this year, but you can read Bi’s of Colour History report in 2015.   

 

  • Bi people have always been here 

Being bi isn’t a new way to identify, nor is it a phase or a trend. Take a look through some of the iconic bi people throughout history – Historical figures who are bi icons  

 

  • Use inclusive language 

Be aware of, and curious about, the language you use. Do you use the word ‘gay’ as a catch-all term? Could this be inadvertently erasing someone’s bi identify? Remember that asking lots of questions so that you are clear on someone’s identity can be harmful, so keep an open, empathic mind. The Stonewall Glossary of terms is a useful resource.   

 

  • Bi people face unique mental health challenges 

In a review of depression and anxiety among bi people, meta-analysis of approximately 52 eligible studies, found that: 

“consistent pattern of lowest rates of depression/anxiety among heterosexual people, while bisexual people exhibit higher or equivalent rates in comparison to lesbian/gay people.” 

 

  • Bi people face unique parenting challenges  

Bi people are almost twice as likely to be parents than gay or lesbian people, and some may find it tricky to know how or when to ‘come out’ to their children. You can read about some of the lived experiences of bi parents in this article How Do Bi Parents Come Out to Their Kids?   

The parent and family network recently held an event in conjunction with the LGBT+ staff network, focused on LGBT+ parenting.   

 

  • The majority of people of all generations in the UK now accept the idea that sexual orientation exists along a continuum rather than a binary choice  

YouGov states that overall 60% of straight people support this idea, and 73% of those who identify as LGBT+. 

 

  • Young bi people and self-injury

According to University of Manchester researchers, young bi people are up to six times more likely to engage in non-suicidal self-injury. Further research is being done into this issue, you can find out about the study here Self-Injury in young Bisexual people: A Longitudinal investigation (SIBL)  

 

  • Bi people face high levels of discrimination at work  

Stonewall report on bi people in the workplace, found: 

“Bisexual staff are, they felt, subjected to assumptions that they may find demeaning or inappropriate.” 

 

  • Make LGBT+ spaces inclusive 

It is important that LGBT+ spaces review their inclusivity and recognise any challenges. We introduced a position of ‘Bi role model’ into our LGBT+ staff Network  

 

  • 61% of bi women and 37% of bi men experience intimate partner violence.  

According to a study, bi people experienced the highest rates of violence by an 

intimate partner. In Reading there are several organisations you can reach out to including Trust HouseAlana House, and Berkshire Women’s Aid 

 

  • Support bi organisations and campaigns 

Find national and local organisations that you can support, such as:

Bi Pride UK  

The Unicorn project  

BiCon 

 

  • Make sure your workplace, university or school is inclusive 

At the University of Reading, some of the ways you can support bi people are joining the LGBT+ Staff Network, taking Bi inclusion training, joining RUSU LGBT+ society. 

In Reading town, SupportU are and LGBT+ organisation who can offer a professional consultancy and tailor training for local businesses and organisations. 

Stonewall are a larger organisation who share best practice and toolkits, provide training and a benchmarking tool. The University of Reading continues to be among Stonewall’s Top 100 Employers, according to the 2020 Stonewall Workplace Equality Index. 

 

  • The Bi Pay Gap  

‘INVISIBLE MAJORITY’ a US report on the disparities facing bi people, shows that 48% percent of bi respondents report a lower annual family income compared to 28% of all adults in the United States.  

 

  • Support bi people to live full and complex lives, like everyone else! 

Bi people can be further stigmatised if they are seen to ‘fit’ into stereotypes. Bi people can live every bit as complex and nuanced lives as those who do not identify as bi. Affirm your friends, colleagues and family members identities and relationships and remember the harm that can be caused by stereotyping.  

 

  • Positive Bi representation in the media  

Representation is so important because of the link between societal attitudes towards bi  people, and their portrayal in mainstream media.  GLAAD’s ‘Where we are on TV’ report.  

 

  • Celebrate bi people! 

Amplify the voices and experiences of bi people. Celebrate days like Bi Visibility Day. Search social media for bi content creators, learn and share their content.  

 

 

 

 

Further Resources:

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Is STEM Racist and Sexist? Investigating why BAME Women get the Shortest End of the Stick

by
Reham ElMorally, PhD Candidate in International Development, SAPD
Billy Wong, Associate Professor, Institute of Education
Meggie Copsey-Blake, MA Education Graduate, Institute of Education

 

Science, Technology, Engineering and Mathematics (STEM) degrees and work environments were traditionally male dominated, as the belief that males have a higher capacity to rationalize and problem solve. Females, on the other hand, are perceived to have higher cognitive verbal abilities, stereotyping them as unsuitable to engage in public deliberation and better, thus supposedly they are better suited to dominate the private sphere. Throughout the past decades, not only was this hypothesis debunked by numerous scholars, particularly psychologists, but it was also rescinded as it was proven that females can have just as high, if not higher, cognitive functionality than males(Steward-Williams & Halsey, 2021). While the prejudicial and biased accounts of cognitive aptitudes have been challenged by the academics and scholars, the social cycle of female inferiority is still prevalent.  Furthermore, an archaic but dominant belief that people from minority ethnic backgrounds do not have an aptitude for STEM (MacDonald, 2014) can still be experienced in the labour market at worrying rates. This notion can be attributed to colonialism and imperialistic cultural exportation, it was perpetuated in the West by the White social hegemonic bloc to maintain White supremacy and protect the seemingly beneficiary status quo.

 

In the SESTEM research project, we analysed 69 interviews (51 minority ethni cand 18 White British students) from undergraduates in STEM degrees asking them to reflect on the racial and gender dynamics with their respective degrees.

 

In our previous publication ((Wong, ElMorally and Copsey-Blake, 2020 and  2021), the data revealed and supported a de facto institutional bias against minority ethnic students. This is manifested in terms of microaggressions, tokenism, and lack of substantive representative diversity in terms of faculty and staff. We examined the intersectionality of race and gender to better understand why minority ethnic students, specifically female students, are less likely to graduate with a 1st or 2:1 as compared to their White male counterparts, and also less likely to apply for STEM-related employment. The premise of our study is that women and ethnic minorities are subjugated to a variety of institutional and social barriers, including gender roles and expectations, and reproduced by the value for labor as commanded by the capitalist system embedded in the UK system.

 

Firstly, we investigated microaggressions students face during their studies. The literature supports that some microaggressions can result from a general disinterest in utilitarianism, which may include a heightened interest in profit. Other examples may include institutional and political agendas with capitalist objectives, where ethical questions such as effects on the environment and the social wealth distribution are simply irrelevant. However, for this research, microaggressions with a racial and gendered undertone are of interest. Microaggression can also manifest itself in terms of gender discrimination. Melony, a White British female, for example, discussed the gender role division in the STEM workplace:

‘I think, obviously you hear comments like sexist comments. When I was at work, one of the managers was saying, we have to go and lift something and they’re always like, we’ll get the boys together, lift it. The girls were always made to waitress, not be seeing out of the front, whereas the boys do the room service and things like that. There’s still like a pay gap and things.’

 

Secondly, we investigated institutional biases and their effects on student performance and predicted attainability of a STEM degree. We particularly examined how the lack of symbolic and substantive representation affects learning. We have found that an internalized sense of superiority and inferiority  exists among the students we interviewed. For example, Chetachi, a Black British male, felt that these negative stereotypes are not susceptible to change due to the lack of existing role models for Black students. Describing his experiences, Chetachi shared:

‘I barely see any black staff. There’s only one in [my department], and sometimes I ask myself, ‘How does he feel being the only black person in the whole building full of maybe Europeans and whites? How would you feel?’

 

He continued to add there is a lack of role models for black students to guide and substantially tip the scales in favour of ethnic minorities. Respectively, Katherine, a Black British female, touched upon the double-burden of being an ethnic minority and a woman, stating:

‘So many BAME students do come from a working-class background, not all of them, but it could be once again that just not relating to someone [other Black women]. Or maybe the institution itself, maybe, cos obviously uni is a middle-class institution, so it may be hard to just kind of reach to that level.’

 

These accounts led us to propose a more intersectional approach to race and gender mainstreaming at the university level to counteract the effects of historic marginalization and break the socialised inferiority-superiority cycle. We stress that a glass ceiling does exist for minority ethnic students which puts a barrier to entry and achievement. This ceiling is comprised of internalised emotions and unconscious biases towards ‘The Other and Otherhood’. The study also revealed how double-burden (Patimo and Pereio, 2017) of the Stereotype Threat (Dunderson and Li, 2020) negatively affect female minority ethnic students the most.

 

Our study negated the supposed biological predisposition of males and females, as well as reviewed the literature negating racial superiority in relation to cognitive aptitude. We exposed the shallow institutional efforts to appear diverse but in fact exploit tokenism to raise the profile of the institution. Sequentially, we recommend that Higher Education institutions must either substantially reform their approach to closing differential degree outcomes on the basis of race, as well as recognise the shortcomings of the institution in terms of its ‘zero-tolerance’ and ‘affirmative action’ efforts to provide minority ethnic students, especially female students, with a comparative advantage to counter historic, social, and institutional marginalisation. Should HE institutions fails to substantively reform their organisation, we propose that ‘Real-life sessions’, such as ‘Racism and Sexism in the work place’, ‘How to be assertive’, and ‘Your rights as an employee under UK law’, be streamlined and offered to all students, but particularly to ethnic minority ones. This is meant to prepare minority ethnic students for the barriers to entry and challenges they will inevitably face in the capitalist-labour market and improve their chances of success.

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

References:

AdvanceHE (2020). Students statistical report 2020. Advance-HE, (accessed online):  https://www.advance-he.ac.uk/guidance/equality-diversity-and-inclusion/using-data-and-evidence/statistics-reports

Gunderson, L. & Li, G. (2020). Racist Stereotyping of Asians as Good at Math Masks Inequities and Harms Students. The Conversation, (accessed online): https://theconversation.com/racist-stereotyping-of-asians-as-good-at-math-masks-inequities-and-harms-students-132137

MacDonald, A. (2014). “Not for people like me?” Under-represented groups in science, technology and engineering. A Summary of the evidence: the facts, the fiction and what we should do next. WISE Campaign, (accessed online): https://www.wisecampaign.org.uk/wp-content/uploads/2018/06/not_for_people_like_me-full-report.pdf

Patimo, R., and Pereiro, T.C. (2017). from the double role to the multiple burden of women: career or carer?. In Fussell, E. (Ed). Research in Progress Population, Environment, Health. (Italy: Cacucci Editore)

Stewart-Williams, S., & Halsey, L. G. (2021). Men, women and STEM: Why the differences and what should be done? European Journal of Personality35(1), 3 39. https://doi.org/10.1177/0890207020962326

Wong, B., ElMorally, R., & Copsey-Blake, M. (2021). ‘Fair and square’: What do students think about the ethnicity degree awarding gap? Journal of Further and Higher Education, https://doi.org/10.1080/0309877X.2021.1932773

Wong, B., R. ElMorally, M. Copsey-Blake, E. Highwood, and J. Singarayer. 2020. “Is Race Still Relevant? Student Perceptions and Experiences of Racism in Higher Education.” Cambridge Journal of Education. doi:10.1080/ 0305764X.2020.1831441.

 

 

 

 

 

 

Refugee Week 2021 (14th – 20th June)

by
Dr Allán Laville, Dean for Diversity and Inclusion & Lecturer in Clinical Psychology
Alice Mpofu-Coles, Honorary MUniv (OU), PhD candidate Human Geography/Refugee Champion, Community Engagement EDI
Dr Charlotte Newey, Lecturer in Philosophy
Hatty Taylor, Diversity and Inclusion Advisor
Nozomi Tolworthy, Diversity and Inclusion Advisor
Dr Ruvi Ziegler, Associate Professor 

 

 

Refugee Week is a UK-wide festival celebrating the contributions, creativity and resilience of refugees and people seeking sanctuary. It was first celebrated in 1998, designed to coincide with UN World Refugee Day which is marked on 20th June.
At the University of Reading, we want to raise awareness and develop understanding of the lived experience of refugees and people seeking sanctuary.  

The theme of this year is We Cannot Walk Alone

Refugee Week’s vision is:

“for refugees and asylum seekers to be able to live safely within inclusive and resilient communities, where they can continue to make a valuable contribution.
Refugee Week is an umbrella festival, and anyone can get involved by holding or joining an event or activity. Refugee Week events happen in all kinds of different spaces and range from arts festivals, exhibitions, film screenings and museum tours to football tournaments, public talks and activities in schools.”

 

 

City of Sanctuary and the University of Reading

City of Sanctuary is a national movement of local people and community groups committed to creating a culture of welcome and safety, especially for refugees seeking sanctuary from war and persecution. The University of Reading first signed the Reading-specific City of Sanctuary pledge in April 2017. The University pledged to support the ‘City of Sanctuary‘ vision that the UK will be a welcoming place of safety for all and proud to offer sanctuary to people fleeing violence and persecution. Reading was awarded City of Sanctuary status in July 2017. 

This year, we have relaunched the Sanctuary Scholarship Scheme, details of which can be found in this article – University shows support to sanctuary seekers

In addition to the scholarship scheme, we have recently launched the Buy a coffee and support a sanctuary seeker, which means that instead of ordering your usual cappuccino, buy two drinks and leave one in the bank to support local sanctuary seekers and Reading City of Sanctuary! , local sanctuary seekers can visit the cafe, receive a hot drink from the bank and participate in the same café culture we can all enjoy and benefit from at the University.

As refugee week coincides with Pride Month, it is high time to reflect on the discrimination, violence, and persecution that LGBT+ persons face in all corners of the world (70 countries still criminalise consensual sexual relations between men!) causing them to flee and seek safety and freedom elsewhere, including in the UK. The University of Reading is committed to helping refugees and asylum seekers of all sexual orientations, gender identities, races, and religions. Tolerance and acceptance are fundamental to our values, and we feel a deep responsibility to protect and welcome those who have historically been discriminated against, including LGBT+ refugees.

 

 

Reading Refugee Support Group (RRSG) 

RRSG are Reading’s local charity dedicated to supporting refugees and asylum seekers. They have been supporting people in the Berkshire area for over 25 years. This year, RRSG are launching a campaign asking individuals and groups to complete seven actions for seven days, which centre around supporting RRSG, joining a national campaign to demand ’Safe routes now’, attending a film screening, making donations, as well as other ways to support the charity, and refugees in the Berkshire area.

They told us: 

“For Refugee Week, we are challenging you to take on  Seven Actions For Seven Days to help refugees living in Berkshire.  We also proudly present a Programme of Special Refugee Week Events celebrating all aspects of refugee strength, culture and creativity. 

Find out more about the challenge and our programme of events here: https://rrsg.org.uk/refugee-week-2021/ 

Please help spread the word and share this far and wide!”

 

 

Activities and Events 

There are also plenty of online events that you can attend to celebrate the contribution of  refugees and people seeking sanctuary, and learn about their journeys:
  • Moving Worlds

Monday 14th June – Sunday 20th June 2021

A programme of films available to watch at home during Refugee Week, produced by Counterpoints Arts, which coordinates Refugee Week nationally.

https://movingworlds.info/ 

 

  • Together Workshops 

Sunday 7th June – Sunday 21st June 2021, 16:30-18:00

Together Workshops from theatre company PSYCHEdelighton the theme of Imagine. 

Refugee Week Drama Workshops 

 

  • Walk with MIRIAM 

Tuesday 1st June – Wednesday 30th June 2021

Join the Walk with MIRIAM challenge in solidarity with refugee and migrant women and girls. 

Sign Up To Walk With MIRIAM 

 

  • Walk ‘n’ Talk Group on Campus 

Wednesday 23rd June, 14:00-15:30 

To book your place, please email cheryl.woodhouse@reading.ac.uk

 

  • Fragments 

A recording of a recent evening of theatre, written and performed by refugees in Berkshire.  

  • Supposed To Be 

A UK Refugee based in Reading who teamed up with @iamjermainebless_official, a spoken word / rapper in Reading to help tell his story.

Click here to watch

 

 

 

  • Reading Community Cup – World Refugee Day Football Tournament 

Sunday 20th June, 10:00-15:00

Venue: D Pitches (located behind the dome), Madjeski Stadium, Shooters Way, Reading, RG2 0FL 

In celebration of International Refugee Day, RRSG are launching Reading’s first Community Cup! Participants will be: Berkshire’s only refugee football team, Sanctuary Strikers FC, along with teams from University of Reading, Thames Valley Police and Reading West, the competition aims: “to promote unity and integration through the international language of football.” 

Teams: Giving Back United (UoR), Reading  West, Sanctuary Strikers FC, Thames Valley Police 

The Reading Community Cup is created in partnership with Reading FC Community Trust, University of Reading, Reading City of Sanctuary and Reading Refugee Support Group.