Three Flavours of Pykrete

By: David Livings

Three Flavours of Pykrete

A few years ago, Giles Foden published a novel called Turbulence. Most of the book is about a young meteorologist in the second world war, but there’s a framing story set in the 1980s, in which the same man is sailing from Antarctica to Saudi Arabia in a ship made from a mixture of ice and frozen wood pulp called Pykerete. Pykerete was named after Geoffrey Pyke, who proposed building giant aircraft carriers from such a material. Some of the characters in the book are real people, some are fictionalised versions of real people, and some are completely made up. Pyke and Pykerete were obviously made up …

Or so I thought. I subsequently learnt that Geoffrey Nathaniel Joseph Pyke (1893–1948) really did exist or is else a very elaborate hoax, of which the Oxford Dictionary of National Biography is either a victim or a perpetrator. Not only did Pyke propose building aircraft carriers from ice, but he got taken seriously (at least for a while). Pykrete (sometimes spelt Pykerete or Pykecrete) was named after him, but was not actually his invention. The initial idea of adding wood pulp to ice to increase its strength came from two researchers at the Brooklyn Polytechnic, and its properties were investigated at Pyke’s request by the chemist Max Perutz, who would go on to win the Nobel Prize for Chemistry for his work on the structure of haemoglobin. Perutz published a paper on pykrete in the Journal of Glaciology in 1948.

Last year, in a change of career direction, I moved from meteorological research to software engineering on a sea ice model. As part of my familiarisation with the new field, I thought it would be a good idea to carry out some experiments on the substances being modelled. The first experiment was to investigate the difference between fresh water ice and salt water ice. I made samples of both in plastic pots that originally contained desserts from a supermarket (dimensions: 45 mm diameter at bottom, 70 mm at top, height 88 mm, but only filled to 66 mm for the experiment). The salt water ice contained enough table salt to cover the bottom of the pot to a depth of 1–2 mm before adding the water. Both samples were frozen in a domestic freezer for over 24 h, and then taken out and attacked from the top with a blunt-ended table knife. The knife didn’t penetrate the fresh ice, but just sent up some ice chips. It did penetrate the salt ice, which had a mushier texture.

It was at this point that I remembered Pyke and pykrete, and decided to make some for myself. A good place to start an investigation of pykrete is the web page of Peter Goodeve, which takes a critical look at some of the myths that have grown up about the substance. It also contains links to other sources (some of which perpetuate the myths).

Sources differ over whether the magic ingredient in pykrete is wood pulp, wood powder, sawdust, or wood chips. I had none of these available, but I did have a bag of what described itself as Oatbran & Wheatbran Porridge Oats, so I improvised with that. In one of the pots I mixed dry porridge with just enough water to cover it. I filled the other pot with plain water to the same depth, which was about 30 mm. After freezing both samples, I turned them out of their pots and hit them with a hammer. The plain ice shattered after one blow. The porridge ice survived three blows, only denting. This substance was definitely tougher than plain ice.

This experiment with frozen porridge left a couple of things to be desired. Firstly, the additive wasn’t one of the classic pykrete additives. Secondly, the way in which the amount of additive was determined was rather crude. Perutz reports good results with 4–14% wood pulp.

Recently I was able to obtain some fine sawdust, and decided to repeat the experiment using this and other additives. As well as sawdust and porridge, I followed Goodeve’s suggestion of reverse engineering wood pulp by using torn up newspaper. Rather than tearing up the newspaper (actually three pages from the LRB) I cut it into tiny pieces a few millimetres across. If doing this yourself, allow at least two hours.

I used 20 g of each additive to 200 ml of water. One quarter of the mixture was used to make small samples as in the previous experiment, and the rest was used to make larger samples in another type of dessert pot (sample dimensions: 60 mm diameter at bottom, 77 mm at top, height 40 mm). On making the mixtures, it became clear that the additive settling to the bottom was going to be a problem and also that the experiment last year had used much more than 10% porridge. To guard against settling, I took the mixtures out of the freezer and stirred them every half hour for the first three and a half hours. The following figures show the large samples before and after being hit with a hammer.

Figure 1. Samples of plain ice and the three flavours of pykrete beside their additives. Top left: plain ice. Top right: sawdust. Bottom left: porridge. Bottom right: newspaper.

Figure 2. The results of hitting the samples with a hammer. Top left: the plain ice split after two blows. Top right: the sawdust pykrete survived six blows with little damage. Bottom left: the porridge pykrete split after five blows. Bottom right: the newspaper pykrete survived six blows.

Results from the small samples were similar. The plain ice shattered after one blow, sending fragments flying across the room. The porridge pykrete split after two blows. The sawdust and newspaper pykretes survived three blows.

Conclusion: Sawdust pykrete and newspaper pykrete are tougher than plain ice. Porridge pykrete at the same density is intermediate in strength, but at higher densities is impressive.


The author thanks Debbie Turner and Ian Shankland for providing the sawdust.


Perutz, M. F., 1948: A description of the iceberg aircraft carrier and the bearing of the mechanical properties of frozen wood pulp upon some problems of glacier flow. J. Glaciol.1, 95–104,

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